The SIV-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of AIDS disease systems, providing insight into pathogenesis and a model system for testing novel vaccines. The understanding of cellular immune responses based on the identification and study of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules, including their MHCpeptide-binding motif, provides valuable information to decipher outcomes of infection and vaccine efficacy. Detailed characterization of Mamu-B*03901, a common allele expressed in Chinese rhesus macaques, revealed a unique MHCpeptide-binding preference consisting of glycine at the second position. Peptides containing a glycine at the second position were shown to be antigenic from animals positive for Mamu-B*03901. A similar motif was previously described for the D(d) mouse MHC allele, but for none of the human HLA molecules for which a motif is known. Further investigation showed that one additional macaque allele, present in Indian rhesus macaques, Mamu-B*05201, shares this same motif. These "G2" alleles were associated with the presence of specific residues in their B pocket. This pocket structure was found in 6% of macaque sequences but none of 950 human HLA class I alleles. Evolutionary studies using the "G2" alleles points to common ancestry for the macaque sequences, while convergent evolution is suggested when murine and macaque sequences are considered. This is the first detailed characterization of the pocket residues yielding this specific motif in nonhuman primates and mice, revealing a new supertype motif not present in humans.