Chronic human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) infections are characterized by mucosal inflammation in the presence of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). The mechanisms for refractiveness to TGFβ are not clear. Here we show that the expression of microRNA miR-155 was significantly upregulated in the oropharyngeal mucosa during chronic SIV infection and was coincident with downregulation of TGFβ receptor 2 (TGFβ-R2) and SMAD5, key TGFβ signaling genes that harbor putative target sites for miR-155. Ectopic expression of miR-155 in vitro was found to significantly downregulate TGFβ-R2 and Smad5 expression, suggesting a role for miR-155 in the suppression of TGFβ-R2 and SMAD5 genes in vivo. The downregulation of TGFβ signaling genes by miR-155 likely contributes to the nonresponsiveness to TGFβ during SIV infection and may inadvertently aid in increased immune activation during HIV and SIV infections.