OBJECTIVEArachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of leukotrienes. VIA-2291 is a potent 5-LO inhibitor, which has been shown to reduce hsCRP and noncalcified coronary plaque volume following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We aim to evaluate the effect of VIA-2291 on vascular inflammation compared to placebo using FDG-PET.METHODSA Phase II, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted in 52 patients with recent ACS assigned 1:1 to either 100 mg VIA-2291 or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the effect of VIA-2291 relative to placebo on arterial inflammation detected by (18)fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) within the index vessel after 24 weeks of daily treatment, compared to baseline.RESULTSVIA-2291 was relatively well tolerated and was associated with a significant inhibition of the potent chemo-attractant LTB4, with a mean inhibition of activity of 92.8% (p<0.0001) at 6 weeks in the VIA-2291 group, without further significant change in inhibition at 24 weeks. However, for VIA-2291 was not associated with significant difference in inflammation (target-to-background ratio) compared to placebo at 24 weeks or 6 weeks of treatment. Further, VIA-2291 was not associated with a significant reduction in hsCRP from baseline after either 6 or 24 weeks of treatment.CONCLUSIONSVIA-2291 is well-tolerated and effectively reduces leukotriene production. However, inhibition of 5-LO with VIA-2291 is not associated with significant reductions in vascular inflammation (by FDG-PET) or in blood inflammatory markers. Accordingly, this study does not provide evidence to support a significant anti-inflammatory effect of VIA-2291 in patients with recent ACS.