Although double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses are a rather diverse group, they share general architectural principles and numerous functional features. All dsRNA viruses, from the mammalian reoviruses to the bacteriophage phi6, including fungal viruses, share a specialized capsid involved in transcription and replication of the dsRNA genome, and release of the viral plus strand RNA. This ubiquitous capsid consists of 120 protein subunits in a so-called T=2 organization. The stringent requirements of dsRNA metabolism may explain the similarities observed in capsid architecture among a broad spectrum of dsRNA viruses. We have used cryo-electron microscopy combined with three-dimensional reconstruction techniques and complementary biophysical techniques, to determine the structure at 26A resolution of the Penicillium chrysogenum virus (PcV) capsid. In contrast to all previous studies of dsRNA viruses, PcV capsid is an authentic T=1 capsid with 60 equivalent protein subunits. This T=1 capsid is built with the largest structural protein (110 kDa). Structural comparison between viral particles and capsids devoid of RNA show changes along the inner surface of the capsid, mostly located around the icosahedral 5 and 3-fold axis. Considering that there may be numerous interactions between the inner surface of the protein shell and the underlying RNA, the genome could have an important role in the conformation of the structural subunits. The empty capsid structure suggests a mechanism for transcript release from actively transcribing particles. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the PcV coat protein revealed that both halves of the protein share numerous regions of similar amino acid residues. These results open new perspectives when considering the structural organization of dsRNA virus capsids.