The Hsp60 or chaperonin class of molecular chaperones is divided into two phylogenetic groups group I, found in bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts, and group II, found in eukaryotic cytosol and archaea. Group I chaperonins are generally essential in bacteria, although when multiple copies are found one or more of these are dispensable. Eukaryotes contain eight genes for group II chaperonins, all of which are essential, and it has been shown that these proteins assemble into double-ring complexes with eightfold symmetry where all proteins occupy specific positions in the ring. In archaea, there are one, two or three genes for the group II chaperonins, but whether they are essential for growth is unknown. Here we describe a detailed genetic, structural and biochemical analysis of these proteins in the halophilic archaeon, Haloferax volcanii. This organism contains three genes for group II chaperonins, and we show that all are individually dispensable but at least one must be present for growth. Two of the three possible double mutants can be constructed, but only one of the three genes is capable of fully complementing the stress-dependent phenotypes that these double mutants show. The chaperonin complexes are made up of hetero-oligomers with eightfold symmetry, and the properties of the different combinations of subunits derived from the mutants are distinct. We conclude that, although they are more homologous to eukaryotic than prokaryotic chaperonins, archaeal chaperonins have some redundancy of function.