VirB4 proteins are ATPases essential for pilus biogenesis and protein transport in type IV secretion systems. These proteins contain a motor domain that shares structural similarities with the motor domains of DNA translocases, such as the VirD4/TrwB conjugative coupling proteins and the chromosome segregation pump FtsK. Here, we report the three-dimensional structure of full-length TrwK, the VirB4 homologue in the conjugative plasmid R388, determined by single-particle electron microscopy. The structure consists of a hexameric double ring with a barrel-shaped structure. The C-terminal half of VirB4 proteins shares a striking structural similarity with the DNA translocase TrwB. Docking the atomic coordinates of the crystal structures of TrwB and FtsK into the EM map revealed a better fit for FtsK. Interestingly, we have found that like TrwB, TrwK is able to bind DNA with a higher affinity for G4 quadruplex structures than for single-stranded DNA. Furthermore, TrwK exerts a dominant negative effect on the ATPase activity of TrwB, which reflects an interaction between the two proteins. Our studies provide new insights into the structure-function relationship and the evolution of these DNA and protein translocases.