Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) induces a variety of disease manifestations, including respiratory disease, abortions, and myeloencephalopathy. Several vaccines are commercially available but could not previously be distinguished by serologic testing from infection with EHV-1 (or the closely related EHV-4). Currently available vaccines are not reliably protective against the severe manifestations of the disease, including fatal myeloencephalopathy. We determined immunological parameters that can differentiate vaccinated from previously infected animals by comparing humoral and cellular EHV-1-specific responses in clinically healthy horses 10 months after vaccination. Forty-seven horses with known histories of vaccination and infection were studied, including a group of horses that survived a severe neurological outbreak 5 years prior to vaccination. Results of serum virus neutralization (SN), serum IgG isotyping, and cytokine profiling of lymphocyte subsets were compared. IgG4/7 levels strongly correlated with virus neutralization (P < 0.0001). IgG1/3 and SN values distinguished vaccinated/outbreak-exposed (vacc/outbreak) horses from vaccinated horses (P < 0.05). EHV-1-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing CD4(+) (but not CD8(+)) T-cell numbers were also increased in vacc/outbreak horses, which distinguished them from vaccinated horses (P < 0.01). IFN-α secretion was similar between all groups and independent of previous exposure or vaccination. Our data suggest that IgG isotype responses to EHV-1 are more diverse under field conditions than is revealed by experimental studies and that the current modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine induces a more restricted IgG isotype response than does natural exposure to EHV-1. Since these parameters can be assessed in a high-throughput manner, they may prove useful in screening future vaccine candidates and assessing levels of protection.