Adiponectin is the most abundantly produced human adipokine with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and insulin-sensitizing properties. Evidence from in vitro studies has indicated that adiponectin has a potential role in reproduction because it reduces the production of androstenedione in bovine theca cells in vitro. However, this effect on androgen production has not yet been observed in vivo. The current study evaluated the effect of adiponectin on androstenedione secretion and oxidative stress parameters in a rodent model. Seven-week-old female Balb/c mice (n = 33), previously treated with equine gonadotropin chorionic, were assigned to one of four different treatments Group 1, control (phosphate-buffered saline); Group 2, adiponectin 0.1 μg/mL; Group 3, adiponectin 1.0 μg/mL; Group 4, adiponectin 5.0 μg/mL. After 24 h, all animals were euthanized and androstenedione levels were measured in the serum while oxidative stress markers were quantified in whole ovary tissue. Female mice treated with adiponectin exhibited a significant reduction (about 60%) in serum androstenedione levels in comparison to controls. Androstenedione levels decreased from 0.78 ± 0.4 ng/mL (mean ± SD) in controls to 0.28 ± 0.06 ng/mL after adiponectin (5 μg/mL) treatment (P = 0.01). This change in androgen secretion after 24 hours of treatment was associated with a significant reduction in the expression of CYP11A1 and STAR (but not CYP17A1). In addition, ovarian AOPP product levels, a direct product of protein oxidation, decreased significantly in adiponectin-treated mice (5 μg/mL); AOPP (mean ± SD) decreased to 4.3 ± 2.1 μmol/L in comparison with that of the controls (11.5 ± 1.7 μmol/L; P = 0.0003). Our results demonstrated for the first time that acute treatment with adiponectin reduced the levels of a direct oxidative stress marker in the ovary as well as decreased androstenedione serum levels in vivo after 24 h.