Processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta (Aβ) has been for decades in the center of Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. Beside many other variables, lipids, especially cholesterol and its derivatives, are discussed to contribute to AD pathogenesis. Several studies show that cholesterol affects APP metabolism. Also the converse mechanism, the direct influence of Aβ on cholesterol metabolism, has been described. To further investigate this crosstalk between cholesterol- and APP metabolism, a high-fat feeding study was conducted with animals overexpressing human APPSL and/or human ApoB-100. The impact of diet and genotype on cerebral cholesterol metabolism and content as well as spatial learning and memory was examined. While behavioral performance was not influenced by this high fat diet (HFD), reduction of cortical free cholesterol levels and mRNA expression patterns under normal diet and HFD conditions in human APPSL overexpressing mice argue for an important role of APP in cerebral lipid metabolism. From our results we conclude that increased APP metabolism in ApoBxAPP and APPSL mice induces mechanisms to reduce free cholesterol levels.