Viruses depend upon the host cell for manufacturing components of progeny virions. To mitigate the inextricable dependence on host cell protein synthesis, viruses can modulate protein synthesis through a variety of mechanisms. We report that the viral protein kinase (vPK) encoded by open reading frame 36 (ORF36) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) enhances protein synthesis by mimicking the function of the cellular protein S6 kinase (S6KB1). Similar to S6KB1, vPK phosphorylates the ribosomal S6 protein and up-regulates global protein synthesis. vPK also augments cellular proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. Furthermore, we report that both vPK and S6KB1 phosphorylate the enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase 2 (PFKFB2) and that both kinases promote endothelial capillary tubule formation.