The prognosis of pediatric nephrotic syndrome (NS) correlates with the responsiveness to glucocorticoid therapy. Steroid-resistant NS (SRNS) patients progress to end-stage renal disease, while steroid-sensitive NS (SSNS) and steroid-dependent (SDNS) patients do not. We have performed proteomic profiling of urine samples from a cross section of pediatric and adolescent subjects with SSNS, SRNS, and orthostatic proteinuria (OP) to identify urinary biomarkers of steroid resistance. We performed surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) on urine from 19 subjects with SSNS/SDNS in remission, 14 with SSNS/SDNS in relapse, 5 with SRNS in relapse, and 6 with OP. Genetic algorithm search of principal component space revealed a group of five peaks distinguishing SRNS subjects, with mass/charge (m/z) values of 3,917.07, 4,155.53, 6,329.68, 7,036.96, and 11,117.4. Our analyses identified the peak at m/z 11,117.4 with an accuracy of 95% for classifying SRNS. Multidimensional protein fractionation and mass spectrometric analysis of SRNS urine samples combined with immunodepletion identified the 11,117.4 protein as beta2-microglobulin (B2M). Using an unbiased protein profiling approach, we have validated previously reported findings of B2M as a biomarker associated with SRNS. Prospective studies are warranted to establish additional biomarkers that would be predictive of SRNS.