We describe a young woman who acquired a painful, diffuse osteosclerosis of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, pelvis, and long bones of the legs as an adult. Bone densitometry showed a large increase in apparent bone density. Skeletal radiographs demonstrated progressive endosteal and periosteal thickening of the cortices. A bone scan showed increased uptake of radiolabel. The serum total alkaline phosphatase and 1,25-(OH)2D3 levels were substantially elevated and the immunoreactive PTH was mildly elevated. Bone biopsy showed increased bone turnover, especially on endocortical and intracortical surfaces, but the structural indices were normal. By 4 years after presentation the bone pain had remitted and the serum alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-(OH)2D3, and PTH were normal. No cause for the occurrence of osteosclerosis in this patient could be found.