Group II introns are ribozymes, removing themselves from their primary transcripts, as well as mobile genetic elements, transposing via an RNA intermediate, and are thought to be the ancestors of spliceosomal introns. Although common in bacteria and most eukaryotic organelles, they have never been reported in any bilaterian animal genome, organellar or nuclear. Here we report the first group II intron found in the mitochondrial genome of a bilaterian worm. This location is especially surprising, since animal mitochondrial genomes are generally distinct from those of plants, fungi, and protists by being small and compact, and so are viewed as being highly streamlined, perhaps as a result of strong selective pressures for fast replication while establishing germ plasm during early development. This intron is found in the mtDNA of an annelid worm, (an undescribed species of Nephtys), where the complete sequence revealed a 1819 bp group II intron inside the cox1 gene. We infer that this intron is the result of a recent horizontal gene transfer event from a viral or bacterial vector into the mitochondrial genome of Nephtys sp. Our findings hold implications for understanding mechanisms, constraints, and selective pressures that account for patterns of animal mitochondrial genome evolution.