The genome of Rhodobacter capsulatus has been completely sequenced. It consists of a single chromosome containing 3.5 Mb and a circular plasmid of 134 kb. This effort, started in 1992, began with a fine-structure restriction map of an overlapping set of cosmids that covered the genome. Cosmid sequencing led to a gapped genome that was filled by primer walking on the chromosome and by using lambda clones. Methods had to be developed to handle strong stops in the high GC (68%) inserts. Annotation was done with the ERGO system at Integrated Genomics, as was the reconstruction of the cell's metabolism. It was possible to recognize 3709 orfs of which functional assignments could be made with high confidence to 2392 (65%). Unusual features include the presence of numerous cryptic phage genomes embedded in the chromosome.