A number of studies have described the effects of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in immune system. Most of the known effects of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 are indirect since only two functional VDREs that regulate transcription of cytokine gene has been reported until today. In this study we have examined a possibility of direct transcriptional regulation of IL-2, IL-10 and IL-12B genes in activated Jurkat or THP-1 cells via liganded VDR by using gene expression analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. According to our data the IL-2, IL-10 and IL-12B genes respond to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 treatment by 3-6 h. In addition, all of these genes contain several genomic regions that recruit VDR in a ligand dependent fashion. These data suggest that the above cytokines are under direct transcriptional regulation by 1alpha,25(OH)2D3.