The mechanisms underlying the body weight and fat loss after the biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS) remain to be fully delineated. The aim of this study was to examine the contributions of the two main components of BPD/DS, namely sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and duodenal switch (DS), on energy balance changes in rats rendered obese with a high-fat (HF) diet. Three different bariatric procedures (BPD/DS, SG, and DS) and three sham surgeries were performed in male Wistar rats. Sham-operated animals fed HF were either fed ad libitum (Sham HF) or pair weighed (Sham HF PW) by food restriction to the BPD/DS rats. A group of sham-operated rats was kept on standard chow and served as normal diet control (Sham Chow). All three bariatric surgeries resulted in a transient reduction in food intake. SG per se induced a delay in body weight gain. BPD/DS and DS led to a noticeable gut malabsorption and a reduction in body weight and fat gains along with significant elevations in plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36) and peptide YY. BPD/DS and DS elevated energy expenditure above that of Sham HF PW during the dark phase. However, they reduced the volume, oxidative metabolism, and expression of thermogenic genes in interscapular brown adipose tissue. Altogether the results of this study suggest that the DS component of the BPD/DS, which led to a reduction in digestible energy intake while sustaining energy expenditure, plays a key role in the improvement in the metabolic profile led by BPD/DS in rats fed a HF diet.