Reovirus type 1 Lang (T1L) adheres to M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium of mouse intestine and exploits the transport activity of M cells to enter and infect the Peyer's patch mucosa. Adult mice that have previously cleared a reovirus T1L infection have virus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum and IgA in secretions and are protected against reinfection. Our aim in this study was to determine whether secretory IgA is sufficient for protection of Peyer's patches against oral reovirus challenge and, if so, against which reovirus antigen(s) the IgA may be directed. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of the IgA isotype, directed against the sigma1 protein of reovirus T1L, the viral adhesin, were produced and tested along with other, existing IgA and IgG MAbs against reovirus T1L outer capsid proteins. Anti-sigma1 IgA and IgG MAbs neutralized reovirus T1L in L cell plaque reduction assays and inhibited T1L adherence to L cells and Caco-2(BBe) intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, but MAbs against other proteins did not. Passive oral administration of anti-sigma1 IgA and IgG MAbs prevented Peyer's patch infection in adult mice, but other MAbs did not. When anti-sigma1 IgA and IgG MAbs were produced in mice from hybridoma backpack tumors, however, the IgA prevented Peyer's patch infection, but the IgG did not. The results provide evidence that neutralizing IgA antibodies specific for the sigma1 protein are protective in vitro and in vivo and that the presence of these antibodies in intestinal secretions is sufficient for protection against entry of reovirus T1L into Peyer's patches.