For most dsRNA viruses, the genome-enclosing capsid comprises 120 copies of a single capsid protein (CP) organized into 60 icosahedrally equivalent dimers, generally identified as 2 nonsymmetricallyinteracting CP molecules with extensive lateral contacts. The crystal structure of a partitivirus, Penicillium stoloniferum virus F (PsV-F), reveals a different organization, in which the CP dimer is related by almost-perfect local 2-fold symmetry, forms prominent surface arches, and includes extensive structure swapping between the 2 subunits. An electron cryomicroscopy map of PsV-F shows that the disordered N terminus of each CP molecule interacts with the dsRNA genome and probably participates in its packaging or transcription. Intact PsV-F particles mediate semiconservative transcription, and transcripts are likely to exit through negatively charged channels at the icosahedral 5-fold axes. Other findings suggest that the PsV-F capsid is assembled from dimers of CP dimers, with an arrangement similar to flavivirus E glycoproteins.