Patients with lung tumors harboring activating mutations in the EGF receptor (EGFR) show good initial treatment responses to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) erlotinib or gefitinib. However, acquired resistance invariably develops. Applying a focused shRNA screening approach to identify genes whose knockdown can prevent and/or overcome acquired resistance to erlotinib in several EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, we identified casein kinase 1 α (CSNK1A1, CK1α). We found that CK1α suppression inhibits the NF-κB prosurvival signaling pathway. Furthermore, downregulation of NF-κB signaling by approaches independent of CK1α knockdown can also attenuate acquired erlotinib resistance, supporting a role for activated NF-κB signaling in conferring acquired drug resistance. Importantly, CK1α suppression prevented erlotinib resistance in an HCC827 xenograft model in vivo. Our findings suggest that patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC might benefit from a combination of EGFR TKIs and CK1α inhibition to prevent acquired drug resistance and to prolong disease-free survival.