We present a 33-year-old man with 5-year history of low back pain who presented with an enlarging right calf. The patient underwent an extensive workup including biopsy without diagnosis. The patient's examination was significant for diminished pinprick sensation in the right L5/S1 dermatome. Reflexes were absent in the right ankle. The circumference of the right calf (58 cm) was twice that of the left. MRI revealed a herniated lumbar disc at the L5/S1 level. He then underwent a L5/S1 microdiscectomy. Following this surgery, the patient noted complete resolution of all sensory deficits in his lower extremity. His calf circumference had decreased by 5 cm at 4 months and by a total of 8 cm at his 2-year post-operative visit. Histological examination of the affected muscle demonstrated severe grouped atrophy of both type I and type II fibers. There was also evidence of compensatory fiber hypertrophy as well as fiber splitting. We concluded that the patient suffered from a herniated lumbar disc causing radiculopathy with calf hypertrophy (neurogenic hypertrophy). To our knowledge this is the first report of both grouped atrophy and compensatory hypertrophy of both muscle fiber types seen in this phenomenon.