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UCLA Immune Assessment Core

6 Orders Completed
Los Angeles, California, US

About UCLA Immune Assessment Core

The UCLA Immunogenetics Center (UIC) provides comprehensive testing for organ and tissue transplantation to a wide range of physicians, patients, pharmaceutical companies and other medical facilities. HLA typing was pioneered here in the 1960's, and we have retained a leadership position in HLA... Show more »

The UCLA Immunogenetics Center (UIC) provides comprehensive testing for organ and tissue transplantation to a wide range of physicians, patients, pharmaceutical companies and other medical facilities. HLA typing was pioneered here in the 1960's, and we have retained a leadership position in HLA research and diagnostic testing. The laboratory is a World Health Organization reference laboratory for HLA, and is licensed by the State of California, New York, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island, is CMS certified and accredited by the American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. The newest addition to the UIC is the Immune Assessment Core (IAC), a CLIA certified laboratory providing comprehensive immunological testing services for basic, clinical, and translational studies. The IAC provides both standardized and customized multi-parameter flow cytometry, multiplexed immunoassays and cellular immune function assays to evaluate the innate and adaptive immune status of study subjects. In addition to our various validated assays, the core performs customized assay development to meet the investigators’ needs.

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Certifications & Qualifications

CLIA/CAP GCLP

Our Services (41)


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Clinical Biomarkers

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Request a quote for more information about this service.

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Luminex Multiplex Assays

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Luminex technology allows for the simultaneous quantification of up to 100 analytes in serum, plasma, tissue culture supernatant, or cell lysate, making them a useful tool in both disease mechanistic studies and in biomarker discovery. Possible analytes include cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, soluble receptors, and hormone... Show more »

Luminex technology allows for the simultaneous quantification of up to 100 analytes in serum, plasma, tissue culture supernatant, or cell lysate, making them a useful tool in both disease mechanistic studies and in biomarker discovery. Possible analytes include cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, soluble receptors, and hormone or phosphorylated signaling molecules. Additionally, Luminex assays can be used to quantify RNA and phosphoproteins in cell or tissue lysates. We offer both fully validated cytokine/chemokine panels and on-demand panels. Luminex panels are customizable to the investigators’ needs.
Instrument: Luminex 200, FLEXMAP #D
Sample requirements: serum, plasma, cell lysate, other body fluids, varying volume
TAT: two weeks

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Human Mouse Rat Luminex®

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ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Price on request

We offer both validated ELISA assays and custom assay development. Some example are below:
• Cytokines/ Growth factors: IL-6, BAFF, BDNF, IGF-1, VEGF
• Hormones: Prolactin, Adiponectin
• Acute phase proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA)
• Complement components: C4, C1-inhibitor
• Other biomarkers: IL-33R... Show more »

We offer both validated ELISA assays and custom assay development. Some example are below:
• Cytokines/ Growth factors: IL-6, BAFF, BDNF, IGF-1, VEGF
• Hormones: Prolactin, Adiponectin
• Acute phase proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA)
• Complement components: C4, C1-inhibitor
• Other biomarkers: IL-33R (ST2), HMGB1, Galectin-3
Instrument: Molecular Devices SpectraMax M2 Plate Reader
Sample requirements: serum, plasma, cell lysate, other body fluids, varying volume
TAT: two weeks

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Spectramax plate reader with SoftMax PRO software Human Mouse Rat

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Immunophenotyping

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Flow cytometry immunophenotyping is the analysis of cell surface markers using fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies. Immunophenotyping of lymphocyte subsets can be used for assessing the immune status of the patient and monitor effectiveness of immunotherapies. Test results are reported as percent positive cells. Absolute... Show more »

Flow cytometry immunophenotyping is the analysis of cell surface markers using fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies. Immunophenotyping of lymphocyte subsets can be used for assessing the immune status of the patient and monitor effectiveness of immunotherapies. Test results are reported as percent positive cells. Absolute cell counts are available.
Instrument: BD FACSCalibur, FACSCanto II (FDA-approved), LSR Fortessa (up to 14 colors)
Sample requirements: varying
TAT: one week

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Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur BD FacsCantoII/LSRII BD LSRFortessa

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Cell Proliferation Assays

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This test is useful for assessing T-cell function, particularly in the context of impairment of cellular immunity, immunosuppressive therapies, primary or secondary immunodeficiency, or post-transplant (bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell) recovery. Antigens used in recall assays measure the ability of T cells bearing specific... Show more »

This test is useful for assessing T-cell function, particularly in the context of impairment of cellular immunity, immunosuppressive therapies, primary or secondary immunodeficiency, or post-transplant (bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell) recovery. Antigens used in recall assays measure the ability of T cells bearing specific T-cell receptors (TCR) to respond to such antigens when processed and presented by antigen-presenting cells. The antigens used for assessment of the cellular immune response are selected to represent antigens seen by a majority of the population, either through natural exposure or as a result of vaccination. Almost everyone’s lymphocytes can be stimulated to proliferate nonspecifically by stimulating them in vitro with the mitogens. The proliferative capacity of total CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cell subsets and of CD19+ B cells is evaluated by stimulating total PBMCs with Phytohemagglutinin, Concanavalin A, Poke Weed, C. albicans and Tetanus Toxoid. PBMCs are pre-labeled with a fluorescent dye (CFSE) that is diluted upon cell proliferation. Other stimuli of your choice can also be used (for instance, viral antigens).
Instrument: BD FACSCanto II (FDA-approved)
Sample requirements: 5 ml whole blood, heparin, 48 hr max
TAT: two weeks

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BD FacsCantoII/LSRII Human

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In vitro Toxicity Testing

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The ACEA xCELLigenceTM Technology uses a microelectronic biosensor system to monitor cellular events in real time without the incorporation of labels by measuring electrical impedance across interdigitated micro-electrodes integrated on the bottom of its special tissue culture plates. xCELLigence comprises a measurement unit... Show more »

The ACEA xCELLigenceTM Technology uses a microelectronic biosensor system to monitor cellular events in real time without the incorporation of labels by measuring electrical impedance across interdigitated micro-electrodes integrated on the bottom of its special tissue culture plates. xCELLigence comprises a measurement unit housed within a standard tissue culture incubator. It continuously monitors electrical impedance over the entire time period (30 minutes to 72 hours) of the experiment to obtain dynamic real-time data. The real-time impedance measurement improves on conventional endpoint assays and provides quantitative information about the biological status of the cells, including cell number, adhesion, viability, and morphology. xCELLigence has wide usage, most notably in the measurement of drug or cell mediated cytotoxicity, virus-mediated cytopathogenicity, cell proliferation, cell adhesion and migration.
Instrument: xCELLigence RTCA MP and DP
Sample requirements: varying
TAT: varying

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Human Mouse

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Neutrophil Oxidative Burst Assay

Price on request

This assay determines the oxidative burst of granulocytes and monocytes in heparinized whole blood upon stimulation with PHA or opsonized E.coli by flow cytometry. Overall, this assay is useful for assessing granulocyte/neutrophil immune competency to aid in assessing a patient's relative risk for infections. Reduced oxidative... Show more »

This assay determines the oxidative burst of granulocytes and monocytes in heparinized whole blood upon stimulation with PHA or opsonized E.coli by flow cytometry. Overall, this assay is useful for assessing granulocyte/neutrophil immune competency to aid in assessing a patient's relative risk for infections. Reduced oxidative burst is found in patients with AIDS, in elderly people, in patients with severe infections, in patients undergoing therapies with N-acetylcysteine or in recipients of bone marrow and blood transfusions. Additionally, oxidative burst is reduced or absent in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and can be used to identify female CGD carriers.
Instrument: BD FACSCanto II (FDA-approved)
Sample requirements: 2 ml whole blood, heparin, 48hr max
TAT: one week

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BD FacsCantoII/LSRII Human

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Cell Migration Assays

Price on request

The ACEA xCELLigenceTM Technology uses a microelectronic biosensor system to monitor cellular events in real time without the incorporation of labels by measuring electrical impedance across interdigitated micro-electrodes integrated on the bottom of its special tissue culture plates. xCELLigence comprises a measurement unit... Show more »

The ACEA xCELLigenceTM Technology uses a microelectronic biosensor system to monitor cellular events in real time without the incorporation of labels by measuring electrical impedance across interdigitated micro-electrodes integrated on the bottom of its special tissue culture plates. xCELLigence comprises a measurement unit housed within a standard tissue culture incubator. It continuously monitors electrical impedance over the entire time period (30 minutes to 72 hours) of the experiment to obtain dynamic real-time data. The real-time impedance measurement improves on conventional endpoint assays and provides quantitative information about the biological status of the cells, including cell number, adhesion, viability, and morphology. xCELLigence has wide usage, most notably in the measurement of drug or cell mediated cytotoxicity, virus-mediated cytopathogenicity, cell proliferation, cell adhesion and migration.
Instrument: xCELLigence RTCA MP and DP
Sample requirements: varying
TAT: varying

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Human Mouse

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Cytotoxicity Assays

Price on request

This test allows for the quantitative determination of natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity. This is useful for the assessment of patients with recurrent, severe herpes viral infections, primary or secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), and suspected or known monogenic defects affecting the NK cell... Show more »

This test allows for the quantitative determination of natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity. This is useful for the assessment of patients with recurrent, severe herpes viral infections, primary or secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), and suspected or known monogenic defects affecting the NK cell compartment; and for the evaluation of immune reconstitution post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and post-immunomodulatory therapy. The cytotoxic activity of NK cells can be evaluated by co-incubating patient PBMCs with a target tumor cell line known to be sensitive to NK cell-mediated killing.
Instrument: BD FACSCanto II (FDA-approved)
Sample requirements: 5 ml whole blood, heparin, 48hr max
TAT: one week

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BD FacsCantoII/LSRII Human

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Celiac Disease Genotyping

Price on request

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder associated with the HLA markers DQ2 and DQ8. HLA-DQ2 is coded by alleles HLA-DQA10501 and HLA-DQB10201 and HLA-DQ8 is coded by alleles HLA-DQA103 and DQB10302. Approximately 95% of patients with celiac disease have HLA-DQ2 and the remaining 5% have HLA-DQ8. When genetically susceptible... Show more »

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder associated with the HLA markers DQ2 and DQ8. HLA-DQ2 is coded by alleles HLA-DQA10501 and HLA-DQB10201 and HLA-DQ8 is coded by alleles HLA-DQA103 and DQB10302. Approximately 95% of patients with celiac disease have HLA-DQ2 and the remaining 5% have HLA-DQ8. When genetically susceptible individuals eat gluten from wheat, rye or barley grains, they may develop an autoimmune reaction to the mucosal cells of the small intestine, which can lead to malabsorption. The treatment for celiac disease is a lifelong gluten-free diet to prevent future tissue damage. The disease is more common among individuals of European descent. A negative result rules out celiac disease.

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Crossmatch Testing

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Patients who have circulating antibodies that recognize HLA and/or Non-HLA antigens on a donor organ or tissue may experience rapid and irreversible destruction of the graft upon transplantation (hyperacute rejection). Hyperacute rejections are rare today because lymphocytes from organ donors are routinely tested for reactivity... Show more »

Patients who have circulating antibodies that recognize HLA and/or Non-HLA antigens on a donor organ or tissue may experience rapid and irreversible destruction of the graft upon transplantation (hyperacute rejection). Hyperacute rejections are rare today because lymphocytes from organ donors are routinely tested for reactivity with antibodies in the serum of potential transplant recipients prior to transplantation to insure that such reactions do not occur. Even low levels of antibodies may damage the grafts, so more sensitive antibody tests are used for crossmatching and for identifying the risk of immune antibody-mediated damage.

Crossmatch tests are used primarily for transplant candidates to assess the suitability of a potential donor. They are also used for platelet refractory patients and bone marrow candidates with aplastic anemia who may have developed anti-HLA antibodies.

A positive lymphocytotoxic T-cell crossmatch result is a contraindication for renal transplant with the donor, and is a relative contraindication for heart and lung transplant as well. A positive B-cell crossmatch, when it is due to anti-HLA antibodies, also carries a high risk of antibody-mediated damage and transplantation would not be recommended. Positive crossmatches detected only by flow cytometry suggest the presence of preformed anti-donor HLA antibodies and carry a risk of accelerated rejection and damage to the graft. These sensitive crossmatches should be interpreted in terms of the patient's sensitization history and the quality of the donor organ.

Lymphocytotoxicity crossmatches are reported as positive or negative depending upon the percentage of donor cells killed by the recipient serum in the presence of complement and a vital dye. Flow cytometry results are reported as positive or negative based upon the median channel shift caused by the binding of a specific antibody. Positive values have been determined empirically through retrospective analysis for the different solid organ transplants and for other applications. What is considered positive may differ according to the application of the observed sensitivity of the organ to antibody. Generally, a median channel shift above 50 (out of 1024 channels) indicates that antibody is present and above 150 indicates a very high risk and a contraindication to renal transplant except in exceptional circumstances. Channel shifts above 300 usually correlate with a positive cytotoxic crossmatch.

Crossmatch tests use the complement-dependent cytotoxicty test and flow cytometry to detect antibodies that react with donor HLA antigens prior to transplantation. Tests are performed separately using donor T- and B-cells to indicate the likely target of the reaction as HLA-A, -B, -C or HLA-DR, -DQ differences, respectively, between the donor and recipient.
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Complement-Dependent Lymphocytotoxicity
Complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity identifies the most important antibodies in the crossmatch test - those responsible for hyperacute rejection of grafts. A positive crossmatch due to IgG antibodies directed against HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR and -DQ antigens is a clear contraindication to transplantation because of the high risk of hyperacute rejection.
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IVIG Inhibition Crossmatch
Patients exhibiting anti-HLA antibodies can be tested in vitro for potential response to IVIG therapy. Patient sera are incubated with IVIG and subsequently tested for residual lymphocytotoxic antibody activity. Positive in vitro inhibition indicates probable in vivo responsiveness to IVIG therapy.
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Flow Cytometry
Flow cytometry is the most sensitive test for the detection of antibody even when present at levels that are not detected by lymphocytotoxicity tests. The flow cytometry test detects IgG antibodies.
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Virtual Crossmatch
Crossmatch results can now be accurately predicted when the patient's antibody specificities have been identified using recombinant single HLA antigen bead technologies and the potential donor HLA type is known. Thus, offers of deceased donor kidneys and other organs can be avoided when a positive crossmatch can be predicted. This permits importation of organs over greater distances without the fear of a positive crossmatch and provides an advantage to those disadvantaged by sensitization.
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Endothelial Cell Crossmatch
Endothelial cells constitute the first contact point between the transplanted organ and the recipient's immune system. Endothelial cell crossmatching (ECXM) provides testing for antibodies to non-HLA antigens only expressed on endothelial cells prior to transplantation. Antibodies reactive with donor endothelial cell antigens have been implicated in cases of humoral rejection when no anti-HLA antibodies can be detected. The endothelial cell crossmatch can identify antibodies that may increase the risk of antibody-mediated rejection before or after transplantation. Donor-specific endothelial cells or surrogate cells are used to determine the presence of anti-endothelial cell antibodies.

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HLA Tetramer Analysis

Price on request

Antigen Specific T-Cell Tests by HLA Tetramer Analysis
Quantitative flow cytometry analysis of T-cells binding HLA tetramers detect antigens specific T-cells and monitor response to vaccines for tracking antigen specific T-cells in disease diagnosis and immune monitoring. Tests are reported in percent tetramer-positive cells.

Antigen Specific T-Cell Tests by HLA Tetramer Analysis
Quantitative flow cytometry analysis of T-cells binding HLA tetramers detect antigens specific T-cells and monitor response to vaccines for tracking antigen specific T-cells in disease diagnosis and immune monitoring. Tests are reported in percent tetramer-positive cells.

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HLA Typing

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HLA antigens are integral cell membrane glycoproteins, which play key roles in immunity. These molecules represent major barriers to organ and tissue transplantation between individuals, but have also been implicated in many disease processes, particularly those with an autoimmune component. Two distinct classes of structurally... Show more »

HLA antigens are integral cell membrane glycoproteins, which play key roles in immunity. These molecules represent major barriers to organ and tissue transplantation between individuals, but have also been implicated in many disease processes, particularly those with an autoimmune component. Two distinct classes of structurally similar HLA antigens have been well characterized and differ in their tissue distribution - class I HLA-A, -B, -C antigens are expressed ubiquitously on nucleated cells, whereas the class II HLA-DR, -DQ, -DP antigens are normally expressed on B cells, monocytes, macrophage, dendritic cells and on activated T cells. HLA typing identifies the unique constellation of HLA antigens for an individual. Tests of HLA-class I (A, B, C) and class II (DR, DQ, DP) gene polymorphisms are integrals for:

Solid organ and bone marrow transplants
Disease association studies
Vaccine development and application
The UCLA Immunogenetics Center (UIC) uses DNA-based molecular diagnostic techniques to identify HLA genes. HLA typing using these newer DNA technologies provides tests that are more robust, accurate and reliable in resolving allele-level differences in HLA genes that cannot be detected by serology. Reagents are synthetic, uniform and reproducible. DNA tests can be performed using a variety of source materials (lymphocytes, whole blood, buccal swabs, biopsy samples, frozen tissue) and are less affected by viability and sample age.

Several approaches to HLA typing are used, offering a range of typing resolution levels from low (antigen-level) to high (allele-level). Tests used to identify HLA types rely on amplification of limited stretches of genomic DNA within the HLA genes. The genetic polymorphisms associated with the different HLA alleles are identified through hybridization with specific amplification primers (SSP) or probes (SSO) or by direct sequencing-based typing (SBT).
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PCR-SSO
Reverse SSO hybrodization is used to determine HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, -DQ and -DP locus types at an intermediate and higher than intermediate levels of resolution. Tests of this type are used when low or intermediate resolution typing is required or as a screening test to identify potential donors or individuals who may later require higher resolution testing.

This technology is used for high volume testing and allows for relatively low-cost typing for bone marrow donor drives or other applications involving large sample numbers. Special volume pricing and terms may apply.
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PCR-SSP
PCR-SSP is also used to determine HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR and DQ locus types at a resolution similar to serological testing. PCR-SSP is a very rapid test that can be performed in 3-4 hours from the time a sample is received. PCR-SSP is used for typing deceased organ donors when speed is an important consideration. PCR-SSP can also be used to provide higher resolution testing and may be employed to resolve alleles.
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SBT
SBT provides the highest resolution HLA typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, -DQ and -DP locus alleles. SBT is used when the highest resolution typing is important as in donors and recipients of stem cell transplants or in examining disease associations.

HLA-B27 Test
The presence of the HLA-B27 antigen is associated with inflammatory disorders, such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS), Reiters syndrome and acute anterior uveitis (AAU). HLA-B27 is strongly associated with AS and its presence parallels the HLA-B27 distribution worldwide. A positive HLA-B27 in patients with AAU is associated with significant ocular morbidity due to recurrent attacks of inflammation and its threat of ocular complications. HLA-B27 antigen, however, is not causative, since 10% of normal subjects are positive. This test is not a screening test for AS. Positive results may help to confirm the diagnosis and therapeutic management in patients without the full range of symptoms.

HLA-B5701
The presence of the HLA-B5701 allele is highly predictive of abacavir hypersensitivity and is present in approximately 5% of the HIV-1 positive patient population. Hypersensitivity reactions can occur within 6 weeks of abacavir treatment and symptoms are non-specific, e.g. rash, nausea, or cough which can also be associated with infection, reaction to other drugs or inflammatory disease. The HLA-B5701 test result can aid in differentiating a hypersensitive reaction from these other syndromes. Screening for the presence of the HLA-B*5701 allele before starting HIV-1 positive patients on abacavir therapy will minimize the risk of a hypersensitivity reaction by excluding positive patients from abacavir therapy.

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Histocompatibility Testing

Price on request

HLA antibody testing
MICA and endothelial cell antibody testing
Crossmatch testing

Anti-HLA Antibody Testing
Patients who have become sensitized to allogeneic HLA antigens through pregnancies, blood transfusions, failed transplants, or other means represent a challenge when requiring a transplant or platelet transfusion.... Show more »

HLA antibody testing
MICA and endothelial cell antibody testing
Crossmatch testing

Anti-HLA Antibody Testing
Patients who have become sensitized to allogeneic HLA antigens through pregnancies, blood transfusions, failed transplants, or other means represent a challenge when requiring a transplant or platelet transfusion. Preformed anti-HLA antibodies are associated with hyperacute rejection of kidney, heart and lung grafts, primary nonfunction of liver grafts, failure of platelet transfusions and accelerated and chronic loss of solid organ transplants. When present in blood or plasma donors, preformed anti-HLA antibodies may cause transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) in some recipients. These antibodies can be identified and characterized using several approaches which vary in sensitivity and accuracy. Tests for the present of circulating anti-HLA are critical for:

Organ transplants
Blood and platelet transfusions
Blood and plasma donors
Anti-HLA antibodies in patient's serum may react with cells from a few or many individuals. Sensitization is reported as the percent Panel Reactive Antibody (PRA), which is the percentage of potential donors' cells tested that were killed by the patient's serum. The PRA also gives an estimate of the likelihood of finding a suitable donor. Computerized analyses of lymphocytotoxicity reaction patterns on well-characterized cell panels identify the specific HLA-antigens against which antibodies are directed, and "safe" antigens, which are not recognized. Patients who have autoimmune diseases, are on particular medications, or have infections may develop false positive reactions that are not caused by anti-HLA antibodies. Flow bead tests provide results separately for class I and class II antibodies and since they are based on purified HLA antigens, they avoid many of the false positive reactions. Flow bead testing can also be used to identify HLA specificities even with low antibody titers.

Results are reported as the percent PRA for cytotoxicity tests, whether or not reactivity is DTT sensitive, and the anti-HLA specificities that were identified. Luminex and flow cytometry test reports indicate percent PRA for class I and class II antigens and antibody specificity. Single recombinant HLA class I (A, B, C) and class II (DR, DQ, DP) antigens coupled to microparticles are used to determine the HLA specificity of broadly reactive sera or sera with undefined specificity.

Anti-HLA antibody testing provides an accurate assessment of an individuals sensitization status and identification of the HLA antigens specifically targeted by those antibodies. The tests used to identify anti-HLA antibodies are based upon assessing reactions of antibodies with well-characterized panels of individual lymphocytes (using complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity), and with purified HLA antigens coupled to specialized microparticles (luminex, flow cytometry).

Non-HLA Antibodies reactive with donor endothelial cell antigens have been implicated in cases of humoral rejection when no anti-HLA antibodies can be detected. The MICA antibody test detects IgG antibodies against the most common MICA alleles and allows high throughput antibody screening and identification using Luminex technology. The test can be performed before or after transplantation.
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Complement-Dependent Lymphocytotoxicity
Complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity is used to identify patients at risk for antibody-mediated damage to grafted organs or tissue. This test can also be performed after transplantation.
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Luminex
Luminex is used before and after transplantation to monitor patients for presence or absence of anti-HLA class I and class II antibodies or to monitor the appearance or disappearance of antibodies over time. Positive sera are subsequently tested by luminex class I and class II identification assays to determine the HLA specificity of the antibodies. Single HLA antigen beads are used to determine specific HLA-A, B, C, DR, DQ, and DP antibodies and their strength in HLA antibody positive sera.
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Flow Cytometry
Flow cytometry is used before and after transplantation to assess the specificity of anti-HLA antibodies that are not normally detected by less sensitive methods such as cytotoxicity. Single HLA antigen beads are used to determine specific HLA antibodies in HLA antibody positive sera.

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Clinical Immune Response Assessment

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Identifying biomarkers of immune reactivity is an emerging theme in the diagnosis of transplant rejection and in managing various immune and inflammatory diseases. Assessing the immune response during inflammation permits risk assessment, optimization of therapy, surveillance of response to therapy and guidance in developing new... Show more »

Identifying biomarkers of immune reactivity is an emerging theme in the diagnosis of transplant rejection and in managing various immune and inflammatory diseases. Assessing the immune response during inflammation permits risk assessment, optimization of therapy, surveillance of response to therapy and guidance in developing new therapeutic strategies.

Patients who develop T-cell alloreactivity or anti-donor HLA antibodies are at higher risk of graft rejection. There is a growing recognition that if these changes can be detected in advance of clinical symptoms, appropriate immunosuppressive intervention can be administered to prevent rejection. Thus, monitoring changes such as anti-HLA antibody levels in the serum or increased immune response gene expression in the blood can provide useful data for the management of transplant recipients.

Immune assessment tests have been developed to detect various activation states that reflect a change in the immune status of the patient. The most informative approach to immune assessment is to perform a sequential analysis using assays that measure distinct immune functions.

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Immune Function Testing

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Quantitation of global cell-mediated immunity by the Cylex Immuknow assay can be used to measure the potency of immunosuppressive therapy. This assay is also informative for monitoring immunosuppression compliance. T-cells are stimulated with mitogens, superantigens or protein antigens and the degree of activation is measured by... Show more »

Quantitation of global cell-mediated immunity by the Cylex Immuknow assay can be used to measure the potency of immunosuppressive therapy. This assay is also informative for monitoring immunosuppression compliance. T-cells are stimulated with mitogens, superantigens or protein antigens and the degree of activation is measured by the generation of ATP measured by luminometry or production of cytokines measured by flow cytometry. The degree of T-cell responsiveness to antigenic stimuli correlates with the patient's net immunosuppression. The results are reported in ng/ml ATP.

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KIR Genotyping

Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genotyping
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Natural killer (NK) cells are the integral component of innate immunity, and kill infected cells, tumors and stressed cells without prior sensitization. Further, they secrete inflammatory cytokines, which drive the antigen specific adaptive immunity, NK cells distinguish these abnormal cells from healthy cells through variable... Show more »

Natural killer (NK) cells are the integral component of innate immunity, and kill infected cells, tumors and stressed cells without prior sensitization. Further, they secrete inflammatory cytokines, which drive the antigen specific adaptive immunity, NK cells distinguish these abnormal cells from healthy cells through variable inhibitory and activating Killer Cell Ig-Like Receptors (KIRs). The inhibitory KIRs recognize determinants expressed on the surface of abnormal cells and subvert these unhealthy cells. Genes encoding KIRs and HLA ligands belong to polymorphic gene families located on different chromosomes, feature variation in the number and type of genes. Since the integration of signals transduced from inhibitory and activating receptors help to balance the NK cell response between tolerance of healthy cells and killing of unhealthy cells, the combinations of KIR and HLA class I molecules play an important role in human immunity and disease. The KIR genotyping test identifies the presence and absence of 15 distinct KIR genes.

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Narcolepsy Panel

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Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that affects up to 0.2% of the general population with the highest rates among those with Japanese or other Asian ancestry. Patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy carry HLA DRB11501-DQB10602 haplotype in 85-95% of cases, compared to about 30% of the normal population2. A positive result in symptomatic patients may help to confirm narcolepsy.

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that affects up to 0.2% of the general population with the highest rates among those with Japanese or other Asian ancestry. Patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy carry HLA DRB11501-DQB10602 haplotype in 85-95% of cases, compared to about 30% of the normal population2. A positive result in symptomatic patients may help to confirm narcolepsy.

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T-Cell Alloactivation Test

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The frequency of T-cell precursors to donor alloantigens can be measured by a cytokine secretion flow cytometry assay. Responder cells are cultured with stimulator cells, soluble donor antigens or mismatched peptides and assayed for proliferation or Th1 vs Th2 type cytokine release. The degree of T-cell alloreactivity correlates... Show more »

The frequency of T-cell precursors to donor alloantigens can be measured by a cytokine secretion flow cytometry assay. Responder cells are cultured with stimulator cells, soluble donor antigens or mismatched peptides and assayed for proliferation or Th1 vs Th2 type cytokine release. The degree of T-cell alloreactivity correlates with acute and chronic rejection. This test has the advantage of measuring the transplant recipient's immune response to the allograft using peripheral blood.

The presence of increased numbers of T-cells directed against graft HLA antigens identifies patients at risk of acute and chronic rejection. The results are reported as the frequency of proliferating or cytokine-producing T-cells.

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Assay Development

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Clinical Chemistry

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Cell-Based Assays

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Cell Viability & Proliferation Assays

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Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

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Clinical Hematology

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Gene Panel Testing

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Antibody/Antigen Detection Based Testing

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Toxicology

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Biomarkers

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Clinical Research

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Cell Invasion & Migration Assays

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Clinical Immunology Tests

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Bioanalysis

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Biology

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Protein Quantification

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DC

Donald Carter

Lab Manager
PG

Ping Ge

Supervisor
ER

Elaine Reed

Director
MR

Maura Rossetti

Director

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