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Trinity Bioactives Limited

Wellington

Trinity Bioactives conducts independent scientific tests to identify and support the development and marketing of products with health benefits that are primarily derived from natural sources.

We reduce the time it takes to develop a new product by using a readily available and recognised range of assays and models to characterise the biological activities. We work to identify bioactives, provide understanding of how they work and confirm the efficacy of compounds, nutraceuticals, natural products for both human and animal health.

Trinity Bioactives Ltd is well-equipped for performing both in vitro and in vivo experiments and investigations. It has available 180 models and assays that are all peer-reviewed. These are used to investigate bioactivities and bioavailability associated with a wide range of natural products, compounds, preparations, extracts and developed products.

We have an extensive range of... Show more »

Trinity Bioactives conducts independent scientific tests to identify and support the development and marketing of products with health benefits that are primarily derived from natural sources.

We reduce the time it takes to develop a new product by using a readily available and recognised range of assays and models to characterise the biological activities. We work to identify bioactives, provide understanding of how they work and confirm the efficacy of compounds, nutraceuticals, natural products for both human and animal health.

Trinity Bioactives Ltd is well-equipped for performing both in vitro and in vivo experiments and investigations. It has available 180 models and assays that are all peer-reviewed. These are used to investigate bioactivities and bioavailability associated with a wide range of natural products, compounds, preparations, extracts and developed products.

We have an extensive range of cells available for culturing. Our facilities for studying the metabolism and behaviour of these cells and also for culturing and analyses of tissues are modern and in regular use.
Trinity Bioactives also has in vivo models of a diverse range of medical and health conditions for investigating the efficacy, potency and safety of products.

Our objective is to add value to your activities such as your product development programme and product development investment decisions.

Trinity Bioactives also undertakes the development of inexpensive, disposable diagnostic devices that produce results rapidly. These can be used by professionals or at home by the public.

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Trinity Bioactives Limited has not listed any services.

Allergen test - skin
Price on request

Ex vivo Allergy Models

Histamine production:
Freshly isolated skin samples can be pre-treated with the test material and then exposed to a mast cell’s secretagogue to measure the release of histamine in comparison to untreated skin. Alternatively the skin can be treated with an allergen or secretagogue and then the test... Show more »

Ex vivo Allergy Models

Histamine production:
Freshly isolated skin samples can be pre-treated with the test material and then exposed to a mast cell’s secretagogue to measure the release of histamine in comparison to untreated skin. Alternatively the skin can be treated with an allergen or secretagogue and then the test material applied and the consequent modulation of histamine production and release recorded.

Skin inflammation:
Product efficacy for affecting skin inflammatory and allergic responses can be tested using skin samples pre-treated with the test product prior to being exposed to an inflammatory preparation.

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Histamine Release Assay
Price on request

In vitro Allergy Model

Primary mast cells can be isolated from an experimental animal and used to study the effect of test preparations on the production of histamine. This model is ideal for testing for anti-histamine response. Histamine is a major marker or indicator of an allergic reaction. The allergic reaction leads to increased production of histamine.

In vitro Allergy Model

Primary mast cells can be isolated from an experimental animal and used to study the effect of test preparations on the production of histamine. This model is ideal for testing for anti-histamine response. Histamine is a major marker or indicator of an allergic reaction. The allergic reaction leads to increased production of histamine.

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Clinical Trials
Price on request

Trinity Bioactives has arrangements with several reputable and well-established companies who are experienced in conducting clinical studies and trials.

These are run by highly competent health care professionals who are very familiar with the ethics and regulatory processes and requirements. These are undertaken with a high... Show more »

Trinity Bioactives has arrangements with several reputable and well-established companies who are experienced in conducting clinical studies and trials.

These are run by highly competent health care professionals who are very familiar with the ethics and regulatory processes and requirements. These are undertaken with a high degree of efficiency.
Their knowledge and experience enables the recruitment of subjects appropriate for each trial to be easily and efficiently undertaken.

There is frequent interaction with the sponsor both in the design of the trial and in the reporting of the progress of it. This regular reporting by experienced staff can provide feedback on any issues such as recruitment, logistics or safety, before they have the chance to become serious problems.

These trial companies are GCP compliant. Their sole business is the performance of clinical trials. They have excellent QA and auditing procedures. They have their own dedicated facilities but have access to comprehensive medical services in close proximity as well.

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RT-PCR
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
Price on request

RNA can be isolated from cells and tissues and the messenger RNA from specific genes is transcribed by reverse transcriptase (RT) to cDNA and then amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The presence and quantity of it can be determined.

RNA can be isolated from cells and tissues and the messenger RNA from specific genes is transcribed by reverse transcriptase (RT) to cDNA and then amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The presence and quantity of it can be determined.

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Nanostring nCounter
Price on request

RNA is isolated from a number of cells or a number of tissues so that the expressions of a range of genes can be compared. The number of tissue/cell samples and also the number of genes examined are both very flexible and are at the choice of the client.

RNA is isolated from a number of cells or a number of tissues so that the expressions of a range of genes can be compared. The number of tissue/cell samples and also the number of genes examined are both very flexible and are at the choice of the client.

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Mucositis Animal Models
Price on request

Mucositis is the painful inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract, usually as an adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment for cancer. Mucositis can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract,

Gastrointestinal (GI) mucositis affects almost all patients undergoing... Show more »

Mucositis is the painful inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract, usually as an adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment for cancer. Mucositis can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract,

Gastrointestinal (GI) mucositis affects almost all patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy. 80% of patients with malignancies of the head and neck receiving radiotherapy, and a wide range of patients receiving chemotherapy. Alimentary tract mucositis increases mortality and morbidity and contributes to rising health care costs.

Trinity Bioactives has available a rat model of mucositis. It is a well-established model that is based on the administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to the animals. Mucositis develops in the lower gut region and clinical, biochemical and pathological assessments of prospective treatments can be made.

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Chemotaxis Assays
Price on request

Chemotaxis is the ability of a compound or product to promote or to inhibit the migration and movement of cells.
Among the most frequently investigated cells that Trinity Bioactives uses are endothelial, fibroblasts, neutrophils and monocytes but it is possible to conduct the research using other cells.

Chemotaxis is the ability of a compound or product to promote or to inhibit the migration and movement of cells.
Among the most frequently investigated cells that Trinity Bioactives uses are endothelial, fibroblasts, neutrophils and monocytes but it is possible to conduct the research using other cells.

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Apoptosis Assays
Price on request

Every cell in the body has a finite lifespan, the length of which varies for the different cells. The death of aging cells follows a defined series of steps – it is not a haphazard unpredictable event. This programmed cell death is known as apoptosis. In a number of diseases the apoptotic process becomes disorganised and... Show more »

Every cell in the body has a finite lifespan, the length of which varies for the different cells. The death of aging cells follows a defined series of steps – it is not a haphazard unpredictable event. This programmed cell death is known as apoptosis. In a number of diseases the apoptotic process becomes disorganised and disrupted. The best known example of this is cancer.
There are a number of steps and stages associated with apoptosis which Trinity Bioactives is able to assess, investigate and measure. These include changes to the cellular DNA (e.g. TUNEL assay), changes to enzymes (e.g. caspases) and release of characteristic marker compounds (e.g. cytochrome b).

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In vitro inflammation models
Price on request

Trinity Bioactives has an extensive range of in vitro inflammation models and assays.

Inflammation is associated with almost every health and medical condition. Many types of cells, most frequently leukocytes, may be activated to cause inflammation. This can be manifested through multiple biochemical pathways depending on a... Show more »

Trinity Bioactives has an extensive range of in vitro inflammation models and assays.

Inflammation is associated with almost every health and medical condition. Many types of cells, most frequently leukocytes, may be activated to cause inflammation. This can be manifested through multiple biochemical pathways depending on a range of factors such as:

  • The nature of the inflammatory agent
  • The site of inflammation
  • Age
  • Gender

There are circumstances where it is beneficial such as as a response to infections, the early stages of wound healing and sexual function. In contrast, the suppression of inflammation associated with chronic conditions is beneficial and improves the quality of life for conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, psoriasis, cancer and emphysema.

Models and tests include
- Chondrocyte cultures
- Synoviocyte cultures
- Neutrophils
- Primary monocytes
- Primary macrophages
- Epithelial cells
- Keratinocytes

The Trinity team has more than 21 years experience using primary cells to investigate the modulation of the inflammatory response. These primary cells are freshly isolated from blood for the model. Most frequently these are neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells.
The general approach is to activate the primary cells with an inflammatory agent, add the preparation being tested and measure the effect on the production of inflammatory mediators. These molecular mediators are numerous. The most frequently studied are growth factors, cytokines such as the numerous interleukins, reactive oxygen species, prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes associated with COX and lipoxygenase pathways.
As well, the team at Trinity Bioactives has experience using well-recognized established cell lines for the investigation of the effects of test materials on inflammation. These cells are held in stock at Trinity Bioactives.

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Skin Response Animal Models
Price on request

DERMATOLOGY
Trinity Bioactives has in vitro systems using cell and tissue cultures to investigate:
- the effect of test products on metabolic activities of the skin,
- inflammatory and allergic responses of skin to test products,
- the ability of test products and preparations to be absorbed by the skin,
- the rate of... Show more »

DERMATOLOGY
Trinity Bioactives has in vitro systems using cell and tissue cultures to investigate:
- the effect of test products on metabolic activities of the skin,
- inflammatory and allergic responses of skin to test products,
- the ability of test products and preparations to be absorbed by the skin,
- the rate of transport of product through the several layers of skin,
- resistance to environmental damage,
- skin pigmentation and darkening,
- test products effect on minor wounds (grazes, scrapes).

In vitro models currently available
1. Skin fibroblast cultures
2. Skin keratinocyte cultures
3. Metabolism of skin cells
4. Stressed skin cells (eg UV, radiation, oxidation)
5. Mast cells
6. Skin transport
7. Metabolism of skin tissue
8. Stressed skin tissue (eg UV, radiation, oxidation)
9. Skin absorption
10. Skin inflammation
11. Skin allergic reaction
12. Atopic dermatitis
13. Skin tanning
14. Skin whitening
15. Wound healing

We have cell lines derived from human and animal skin for investigating the effects of test products and preparations on the cell proliferation ability as well as the production and turnover of major extracellular structural components such as collagens, elastin, keratin and proteoglycans. These aspects can be studied using normal cells as well as cells that have been stressed by effects such as UV radiation and oxidative stress or have been damaged by superficial wounds.

More details on dermatology models:
Metabolism
We have a variety of tests that can indicate the likely effect a test product has on the biological activities of skin.
We can use a human keratinocyte cell line or a human skin fibroblast cell line to measure the effect of a test product on metabolic factors such as rates of proliferation, anabolic and catabolic activities.
We can measure the effects of test products on the metabolism of pieces of skin. Measures include alterations to the production and degradation of various collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, keratin and other proteins.

Allergic reactions
Histamine which is produced by mast cells is the primary modulator of allergic responses. Using either, mast cells or pieces of skin in culture, an allergic stimulant can be used to stimulate histamine release. The effect of test preparations to antagonize the histamine production is measured.

Wound healing
Confluent cultures of either skin fibroblasts or keratinocytes have a simulated wound created. The rate of closure of the wound in the presence and absence of test preparations and the production of extra-cellular matrix is monitored. This is a simulation of minor wounds, grazes and scrapes.

Atopic dermatitis
A published in vitro model of dermatitis using keratinocyte cells is available and the effect of the test preparations can be investigated.

Skin absorption of test product
We have models that assess transport of a product through skin. We can:
a) Measure how much and how rapidly a test product is transported or absorbed by skin
b) Measure how much and how rapidly a test product can permeate damaged skin
c) Determine whether and which sub-cutaneous layer is a barrier to transport of the test product through skin

Protection against UV and oxidative damage
We use models comprising human skin fibroblast or keratinocyte cell lines or animal skin to determine the potential beneficial effects of a test product against damage caused by UV radiation or reactive oxygen species.

Skin color
We have assays using either a melanoma cell line or melanocytes to determine the effectiveness of test products at inhibiting or stimulating melanin production. This provides an indication of potential product effect on whitening or tanning skin.

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Custom Immune Cell Assays
Price on request

The effects of test preparations on the proliferative and metabolic activities of a variety of immune cells can be assessed using in vitro models.

These in vitro models include:
- B cell metabolism
- B cell proliferation
- NK cells
- T cell metabolism
- T cell proliferation

For in vitro tests we can isolate primary... Show more »

The effects of test preparations on the proliferative and metabolic activities of a variety of immune cells can be assessed using in vitro models.

These in vitro models include:
- B cell metabolism
- B cell proliferation
- NK cells
- T cell metabolism
- T cell proliferation

For in vitro tests we can isolate primary immune cells from a number of organs and then fractionate them into different sub-populations such as B and T cells, T helper cells, T regulatory cells, and NK cells. The effect of test products on the proliferation of the cells and the production of characteristic cytokines, and modulators is measured in cultures of these cells. Trinity can determine the effect of the test materials on these activities with naïve cells and with stimulated immune cells.

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Immune assessment
Price on request

The effects of test preparations on the proliferative and metabolic activities of a variety of immune cells can be assessed using in vitro and in vivo models.

The in vitro models include:
- B cell metabolism
- B cell proliferation
- NK cells
- T cell metabolism
- T cell proliferation

In... Show more »

The effects of test preparations on the proliferative and metabolic activities of a variety of immune cells can be assessed using in vitro and in vivo models.

The in vitro models include:
- B cell metabolism
- B cell proliferation
- NK cells
- T cell metabolism
- T cell proliferation

In vivo models include:
- Immunoglobulins
- Peyers patches cells
- Spleen immune cells

For in vitro tests we can isolate primary immune cells from a number of organs and then fractionate them into different sub-populations such as B and T cells, T helper cells, T regulatory cells, and NK cells. The effect of test products on the proliferation of the cells and the production of characteristic cytokines, and modulators is measured in cultures of these cells. Trinity can determine the effect of the test materials on these activities with naïve cells and with stimulated immune cells.
We have an in vivo model to measure the effect of test products on immune activity and status. The model assesses the effects on the immune system including the changes in the circulating immunoglobulins and their subclasses and the metabolic activity of lymphocytic organs. Parameters frequently measured include the change in proliferative activity of the various immune cell types as well as the production of modulatory compounds. These effects can be assessed under both ‘normal’ conditions as well as under stimulation or stress.

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Microbial Culture Services
Price on request

In vitro services:
- Anti-infectives
- Antiseptics
- Bacterial cultures
- Fungal cultures
- Viral cultures

In vivo services:
- Hepatitis virus
- Influenza virus
- Rotavirus

In vitro services:
- Anti-infectives
- Antiseptics
- Bacterial cultures
- Fungal cultures
- Viral cultures

In vivo services:
- Hepatitis virus
- Influenza virus
- Rotavirus

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Alzheimer's Disease Animal Models
Price on request

Chronic neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s, Huntington’s and Alzheimers diseases are becoming an increasing health burden. Deposits of amyloid plaques in the hippocampus region of the brain are characteristic of Alzheimers disease.

In vitro tests available (PC-12 cells cultures; hippocampal cultures)
-... Show more »

Chronic neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s, Huntington’s and Alzheimers diseases are becoming an increasing health burden. Deposits of amyloid plaques in the hippocampus region of the brain are characteristic of Alzheimers disease.

In vitro tests available (PC-12 cells cultures; hippocampal cultures)
- Acetylcholinesterase
- Amyloid plaques
- Apoptosis

Trinity Bioactives has in vitro assays which assist the identification of agents that could alleviate Alzheimers disease and its consequences. The assays focus on the formation of the characteristic amyloid plaques. Other facets such as apoptosis and acetylcholinesterase activity can be studied.
The effect of test products on Alzheimers can be investigated by administration of the products to cultures of PC-12 cells and of hippocampal cells from foetal animals using published procedures.

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Acute inflammation animal model
Price on request

Trinity Bioactives has a range of in vivo inflammation models and assays.

Inflammation is associated with almost every health and medical condition. Many types of cells, most frequently leukocytes, may be activated to cause inflammation. This can be manifested through multiple biochemical pathways depending on a range of... Show more »

Trinity Bioactives has a range of in vivo inflammation models and assays.

Inflammation is associated with almost every health and medical condition. Many types of cells, most frequently leukocytes, may be activated to cause inflammation. This can be manifested through multiple biochemical pathways depending on a range of factors such as:

  • The nature of the inflammatory agent
  • The site of inflammation
  • Age
  • Gender

There are circumstances where it is beneficial such as: a response to infections, the early stages of wound healing and sexual function. In contrast, the suppression of inflammation associated with chronic conditions is beneficial and improves the quality of life for conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, psoriasis, cancer and emphysema.

Trinity Bioactives has a number of in vivo models for investigating medical and health conditions. These include models for joint conditions, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, wound healing, cancer and gastro-intestinal diseases.

In vivo models and tests include:
- Acute joint inflammation
- Cancers
- Diabetes
- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
- Metabolic syndrome
- Mucositis
- Osteoarthritis
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Wound healing

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Immune inflammation animal model
Price on request

The effects of test preparations on the proliferative and metabolic activities of a variety of immune cells can be assessed using in vivo models.

In vivo models include:
- Immunoglobulins
- Peyers patches cells
- Spleen immune cells

We have an in vivo model to measure the effect of test products on immune activity and... Show more »

The effects of test preparations on the proliferative and metabolic activities of a variety of immune cells can be assessed using in vivo models.

In vivo models include:
- Immunoglobulins
- Peyers patches cells
- Spleen immune cells

We have an in vivo model to measure the effect of test products on immune activity and status. The model assesses the effects on the immune system including the changes in the circulating immunoglobulins and their subclasses and the metabolic activity of lymphocytic organs. Parameters frequently measured include the change in proliferative activity of the various immune cell types as well as the production of modulatory compounds. These effects can be assessed under both ‘normal’ conditions as well as under stimulation or stress.

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Gastrointestinal Disease Animal Models
Price on request

Trinity has a number of in vitro models that can be employed to investigate uptake of test materials by the various regions of the GI tract, the response of the digestive system to the test materials, changes to the bioavailablity of nutrients and other metabolites as well as the development of products that ameliorate lower gut... Show more »

Trinity has a number of in vitro models that can be employed to investigate uptake of test materials by the various regions of the GI tract, the response of the digestive system to the test materials, changes to the bioavailablity of nutrients and other metabolites as well as the development of products that ameliorate lower gut medical conditions.

In vitro tests include
- Colon cell response and metabolism
- Gut transport
- Oesophageal cell response and metabolism
- Smooth muscle contraction/relaxation
- Stomach cell response and metabolism
- Uptake by adhesion gut cells

Of significant importance in the study of the bioavailability of orally administered products is the capacity of the gut to facilitate the transport of the product across the wall. We have an in vitro model system to measure trans-mural transport using appropriate sections of the GI tract. The degree of product transfer can be established as well as the rate that this occurs at. If the transport is inhibited, then the nature or site of the barrier can be established using this model.

We have cell lines that can be used to investigate the interaction of compounds with the cells that line the oesophagus, stomach, intestines and colon.

Essential to the movement of food along the tract is the action of the intestinal smooth muscle. Trinity has specialized equipment that can measure changes in the response of muscle to modulators.

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Gastrointestinal Disease Animal Models
Price on request

Trinity Bioactives has a number of in vivo models that can be employed to investigate uptake of test materials by the various regions of the GI tract, the response of the digestive system to the test materials, change to the bioavailablity of nutrients and other metabolites as well as the development of products that ameliorate... Show more »

Trinity Bioactives has a number of in vivo models that can be employed to investigate uptake of test materials by the various regions of the GI tract, the response of the digestive system to the test materials, change to the bioavailablity of nutrients and other metabolites as well as the development of products that ameliorate lower gut medical conditions.

In vivo tests available:
- Bioavailability
- Crohns disease
- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
- Ulcerative colitis

Trinity Bioactives has an in vivo model for investigating colon and bowel conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and Crohns disease. This model is well-recognized and the extent of damage can be assessed by clinical measurements during the disease progression. Biochemical and histological assessments of the effect of treatments can be included in the study protocols.

Trinity Bioactives also has in vitro gastroenterology model systems. For details, please select Gastroenterology Models.

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Bioavailability Studies
Price on request

BIOAVAILABILITY
Many drugs and supplements are consumed as tablets. Others are absorbed through topical application.
The bioavailability of the contents and actives of these products is dependent on a number of factors.

ORAL CONSUMPTION
For the products consumed orally the digestability and disintegration of the tablet or... Show more »

BIOAVAILABILITY
Many drugs and supplements are consumed as tablets. Others are absorbed through topical application.
The bioavailability of the contents and actives of these products is dependent on a number of factors.

ORAL CONSUMPTION
For the products consumed orally the digestability and disintegration of the tablet or capsule is an initial but essential step. Trinity Bioactives is able to undertake relatively simple preliminary in vitro investigations of this dissolving. Trinity Bioactives can simulate the environmental milieu of various regions of the gastrointestinal tract (such as stomach or intestine) under both normal and pathological conditions.
For example the enzymatic activity, ionic strength and compositional nature of the stomach can be established for the examination of the kinetics and mechanisms of breakdown of capsules and tablets and the release of the bioactive and key constituents. In an analagous manner, a small intestine mimic containing salts, bile and appropriate digestive enzymes can be prepared.

A range of analytical procedures can be employed in order to characterize the susceptibility of test preparations. Further investigations may follow to acquire additional insights into the disintegration processes. These might involve the use of more complex gut formulations, combinations of the contents of more than one region of the GI tract (eg stomach solution followed by intestinal solution) or in vivo models.
The bioavailability of the test preparation or the digested results of the test preparation can be examined using appropriate gut tissue pieces on a Franz Diffusion Cell. This apparatus permits the extent and the rate of transport across the gut to be measured quantitatively. This provides a reliable in vitro model of the absorption through the gut wall.

TOPICAL ABSORPTION
The ability of a compound, extract, preparation, formulation or product to penetrate into skin can be evaluated relatively simply and inexpensively using an in vitro model. The model permits the rate of absorption and the extent of absorption to be measured. As well it is also be possible to determine which layer of the skin subcutaneously to take up the compound under consideration.
The system utilizes pieces of freshly excised skin being placed on a Franz Diffusion Cell and regularly sampling from the underside of them to determine the concentration of the test sample that has crossed the skin. At the conclusion of the study, thin cross-sections of the skin samples can be made and the location of the test compound determined by methods such as histology, immunohistochemistry or micro-extraction.

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Bacterial cell culture
Price on request

A number of bacterial species of commercial or medical relevance can be cultured for investigating their roles in biological processes and for investigating anti-bacterial activities.
A comprehensive range of bacterial species are available for evaluating the effect of test products and preparations on their growth, proliferation... Show more »

A number of bacterial species of commercial or medical relevance can be cultured for investigating their roles in biological processes and for investigating anti-bacterial activities.
A comprehensive range of bacterial species are available for evaluating the effect of test products and preparations on their growth, proliferation and metabolism. If not available, other species can readily be acquired. The test products can be evaluated for their ability to modulate those organisms that are of interest. These studies provide preliminary information on their potential as anti-bacterial and/or anti-infectious agents. Effects on metabolic activities such as gene expression, biochemical pathways can be studied in these models.

Examples of bacteria currently available:
• B. bifidium
• E. coli
• E. faecalis
• H. influenzae
• H. pylori
• K. pneumoniae
• L. acidophilus
• P. aeruginosa
• P. gingivalis
• P. mirabilis
• S. agalactiae
• S. aureus
• S. pyogenes
• S. uberis

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Viral Testing
Price on request

In vitro tests available:
- Anti-infectives
- Antiseptics
- Hepatitis viruses
- Influenza virus
- Rotavirus

In vivo tests available:
- Influenza virus
- Rotavirus

Trinity Bioactives can investigate the... Show more »

In vitro tests available:
- Anti-infectives
- Antiseptics
- Hepatitis viruses
- Influenza virus
- Rotavirus

In vivo tests available:
- Influenza virus
- Rotavirus

Trinity Bioactives can investigate the effect of test samples at inhibiting infection by influenza virus and also rotavirus. There are established cell lines that can be cultured and infected with these viruses. The ability of test products to inhibit the infection and the killing of these cells can be assessed.
In addition there are animal models of both forms of virus infection available. Mice can be infected with influenza and the ability and potency of test samples at preventing or inhibiting this infection can be assessed as well as the mechanism of action. In a similar manner the effects of test samples on rotavirus infection using young rats can be investigated.

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cancer efficacy
Price on request

Trinity investigates the effect of products and preparations on the growth and metabolism of a range of cancers in culture and in animals.

In vitro tests and models available:
- Basal cell carcinoma
- Brain
- Breast
- Colon
- Leukemia
- Lung
-... Show more »

Trinity investigates the effect of products and preparations on the growth and metabolism of a range of cancers in culture and in animals.

In vitro tests and models available:
- Basal cell carcinoma
- Brain
- Breast
- Colon
- Leukemia
- Lung
- Melanoma (mouse & human)
- Oesophagus
- Phaeochromocytoma
- Prostate
- Squamous cell carcinoma
- Stomach

In vivo tests and models available:
- Basal cell carcinoma
- Brain
- Breast
- Chemically induced colon cancer (rat)
- Colon
- Lung
- Melanoma (mouse & human)
- Phaeochromocytoma
- Prostate
- Squamous cell carcinoma

We have an extensive range of cancer cell lines (human unless otherwise stated) kept in frozen storage. These cover a wide range of different forms and characteristics of solid tumors. These can be cultured under a variety of conditions and environments and the growth rates of the cells and the biochemical and molecular biological properties studied. These include effects and changes to gene expression, (the transcription and translation of the genes) as well as biochemical reactions and receptor activities.
The most frequent in vivo models used (xenografts) involve the injection of cancer cells into appropriate mouse or rat models. Other models involve the initiation of the tumor in the animal using appropriate chemical inducers. The rates of tumor growth and differentiation, the metastases, changes to other organs and systems, the effects of therapeutic agents (both established and putative) have been investigated in projects to date. A range of clinical, biochemical and histological protocols are employed in such studies. The design of these investigations is undertaken in consultation with our client.
Trinity Bioactives has in vitro and in vivo models of angiogenesis which may be useful for evaluating the effect of test preparations on the angiogenesis associated with growing tumours.

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Human
Mouse
Rat
Melanoma Xenograft
Price on request

Trinity investigates the effect of products and preparations on the growth and metabolism of a range of cancers in culture and in animals.

In vivo tests and models available:
Melanoma (mouse & human)

The most frequent in vivo models used (xenografts) involve the injection of melanoma cancer cells into appropriate mouse... Show more »

Trinity investigates the effect of products and preparations on the growth and metabolism of a range of cancers in culture and in animals.

In vivo tests and models available:
Melanoma (mouse & human)

The most frequent in vivo models used (xenografts) involve the injection of melanoma cancer cells into appropriate mouse or rat models. We have a range of melanoma cancer cell lines (human and mouse) kept in frozen storage. Other models involve the initiation of the tumor in the animal using appropriate chemical inducers. The rates of tumor growth and differentiation, the metastases, changes to other organs and systems, the effects of therapeutic agents (both established and putative) have been investigated in projects to date. A range of clinical, biochemical and histological protocols are employed in such studies. The design of these investigations is undertaken in consultation with our client.

Trinity Bioactives has in vitro and in vivo models of angiogenesis which may be useful for evaluating the effect of test preparations on the angiogenesis associated with growing tumours.

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Prostate Xenograft
Price on request

Trinity Bioactives investigates the effect of products and preparations on the growth and metabolism of a range of cancers in culture and in animals.

In vivo tests and models available:
Prostate

The most frequent in vivo models used (xenografts) involve the injection of tumorigenic prostate cancer cells into appropriate... Show more »

Trinity Bioactives investigates the effect of products and preparations on the growth and metabolism of a range of cancers in culture and in animals.

In vivo tests and models available:
Prostate

The most frequent in vivo models used (xenografts) involve the injection of tumorigenic prostate cancer cells into appropriate mouse or rat models. We have a range of prostate cancer cell lines (human) kept in frozen storage. The rates of tumor growth and differentiation, the metastases, changes to other organs and systems, the effects of therapeutic agents (both established and putative) have been investigated in projects to date. A range of clinical, biochemical and histological protocols are employed in such studies. The design of these investigations is undertaken in consultation with our client.

Trinity has in vitro and in vivo models of angiogenesis which may be useful for evaluating the effect of test preparations on the angiogenesis associated with growing tumours.

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Human
Mouse
Rat
Colon Xenograft
Price on request

Trinity Bioactives investigates the effect of products and preparations on the growth and metabolism of a range of cancers in culture and in animals.

In vivo tests and models available:
Colon
Chemically induced colon cancer (rat)

The most frequent in vivo models used (xenografts) involve the injection of cancer cells... Show more »

Trinity Bioactives investigates the effect of products and preparations on the growth and metabolism of a range of cancers in culture and in animals.

In vivo tests and models available:
Colon
Chemically induced colon cancer (rat)

The most frequent in vivo models used (xenografts) involve the injection of cancer cells into appropriate mouse or rat models. We have a range of colon cancer cell lines. Other models involve the initiation of the tumor in the animal using appropriate chemical inducers. The rates of tumor growth and differentiation, the metastases, changes to other organs and systems, the effects of therapeutic agents (both established and putative) have been investigated in projects to date. A range of clinical, biochemical and histological protocols are employed in such studies. The design of these investigations is undertaken in consultation with our client.

Trinity has in vitro and in vivo models of angiogenesis which may be useful for evaluating the effect of test preparations on the angiogenesis associated with growing tumours.

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Breast Xenograft
Price on request

Trinity Bioactives investigates the effect of products and preparations on the growth and metabolism of a range of cancers in culture and in animals.

In vitro and in vivo tests and models available:
Breast

The most frequent in vivo models used (xenografts) involve the injection of breast cancer cells into appropriate mouse... Show more »

Trinity Bioactives investigates the effect of products and preparations on the growth and metabolism of a range of cancers in culture and in animals.

In vitro and in vivo tests and models available:
Breast

The most frequent in vivo models used (xenografts) involve the injection of breast cancer cells into appropriate mouse models. We have a range of breast cancer cell lines. Other models involve the initiation of the tumor in the animal using appropriate chemical inducers. The rates of tumor growth and differentiation, the metastases, changes to other organs and systems, the effects of therapeutic agents (both established and putative) have been investigated in projects to date. A range of clinical, biochemical and histological protocols are employed in such studies. The design of these investigations is undertaken in consultation with our client.

Trinity has in vitro and in vivo models of angiogenesis which may be useful for evaluating the effect of test preparations on the angiogenesis associated with growing tumours.

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Brain Xenograft
Price on request

Trinity Bioactives investigates the effect of products and preparations on the growth and metabolism of a range of cancers in culture and in animals.

In vitro and in vivo tests and models available:
Brain

The most frequent in vivo models used (xenografts) involve the injection of brain cancer cells into appropriate mouse or... Show more »

Trinity Bioactives investigates the effect of products and preparations on the growth and metabolism of a range of cancers in culture and in animals.

In vitro and in vivo tests and models available:
Brain

The most frequent in vivo models used (xenografts) involve the injection of brain cancer cells into appropriate mouse or rat models. We have a range of brain cancer cell lines kept in frozen storage. Other models involve the initiation of the tumor in the animal using appropriate chemical inducers. The rates of tumor growth and differentiation, the metastases, changes to other organs and systems, the effects of therapeutic agents (both established and putative) have been investigated in projects to date. A range of clinical, biochemical and histological protocols are employed in such studies. The design of these investigations is undertaken in consultation with our client.

Trinity has in vitro and in vivo models of angiogenesis which may be useful for evaluating the effect of test preparations on the angiogenesis associated with growing tumours.

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Disposable Device Development & Manufacturing
Price on request

Trinity Bioactives has developed, produced and tested diagnostic devices. These are disposable and inexpensive. They are based on lateral flow procedures or on capture processes during filtration.
It is possible to develop devices for the assessment of a wide and diverse range of metabolites and analytes. Trinity Bioactives has... Show more »

Trinity Bioactives has developed, produced and tested diagnostic devices. These are disposable and inexpensive. They are based on lateral flow procedures or on capture processes during filtration.
It is possible to develop devices for the assessment of a wide and diverse range of metabolites and analytes. Trinity Bioactives has designed procedures for a range of compounds and welcomes enquiries and discussion.
A number of methods of detection and recording results are available. These include colorimetric, fluorimetric , magnetic particles along with electronic or photographic recording of results.
As well as undertaking the development of devices, Trinity Bioactives has facilities for manufacturing devices.

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Arthritis Animal Models
Price on request

Joint Conditions

In vitro models and tests include:
- Chondrocyte cultures
- Synoviocyte cultures

In vivo models and tests include:
- Acute joint inflammation
- Osteoarthritis
- Rheumatoid arthritis

Trinity has in vitro models to investigate the metabolism of collagens,... Show more »

Joint Conditions

In vitro models and tests include:
- Chondrocyte cultures
- Synoviocyte cultures

In vivo models and tests include:
- Acute joint inflammation
- Osteoarthritis
- Rheumatoid arthritis

Trinity has in vitro models to investigate the metabolism of collagens, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans as indicators of cartilage tissue damage mitigation that are used to assess the ability of test products to stimulate repair mechanisms in damaged joints.
For these, chondrocyte and synoviocyte cells isolated from joints are used. These can either be in the normal state or adapted to stimulate the damaged state.

We have rodent models of acute articular joint inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
1) Acute inflammation including oedema can be induced in rat feet. Maximum swelling occurs within four hours. The test products are normally applied or administered before the inflammation is induced. Swelling is measured with a plethsymometer.
2) Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms can be induced in the ankles and feet of rats. This model is used for evaluating the prophylactic and the therapeutic activities of test products. Several arthritic inducing agents are available. The clinical symptoms of the condition are assessed as well as the extent of the swelling and inflammation.
For both models further information can be gained by including histological, biochemical, immunological and molecular biological evaluations as part of the study protocols.
3) Osteoarthritis. Many of the chemical, cellular and molecular features of osteoarthritis can be developed in rat knee joints. This model is used to test products or preparations that might modulate osteoarthritis development by administration in either a prophylactic or a therapeutic manner.

The development of the arthritis can be followed clinically by measuring changes in weight-bearing over a period of several weeks. Biochemical changes can be assessed by measuring appropriate serum markers throughout the period of disease progression. At the conclusion of the study or at pre-determined stages, joints can be removed following euthanasia and examined anatomically, histochemically or immunohistochemically.

Other models addressing tissue repair are detailed under extracellular matrix assays. In vitro models of inflammation are detailed under in vitro inflammation models and assays.

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Arthritis Animal Models
Price on request

Joint Conditions
In vivo models and tests include:
- Acute joint inflammation
- Osteoarthritis
- Rheumatoid arthritis

Trinity Bioactives has rodent models of acute articular joint inflammation, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
1) Acute inflammation including edema can be induced in rat feet. Maximum swelling occurs... Show more »

Joint Conditions
In vivo models and tests include:
- Acute joint inflammation
- Osteoarthritis
- Rheumatoid arthritis

Trinity Bioactives has rodent models of acute articular joint inflammation, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
1) Acute inflammation including edema can be induced in rat feet. Maximum swelling occurs within four hours. The test products are normally applied or administered before the inflammation is induced. Swelling is measured with a plethsymometer.
2) Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms can be induced in the ankles and feet of rats. This model is used for evaluating the prophylactic and the therapeutic activities of test products. Several arthritic inducing agents are available. The clinical symptoms of the condition are assessed as well as the extent of the swelling and inflammation.
For both models further information can be gained by including histological, biochemical, immunological and molecular biological evaluations as part of the study protocols.
3) Osteoarthritis. Many of the chemical, cellular and molecular features of osteoarthritis can be developed in rat knee joints. This model is used to test products or preparations that might modulate osteoarthritis development by administration in either a prophylactic or a therapeutic manner.
The development of the arthritis can be followed clinically by measuring changes in weight-bearing over a period of several weeks. Biochemical changes can be assessed by measuring appropriate serum markers throughout the period of disease progression. At the conclusion of the study or at pre-determined stages, joints can be removed following euthanasia and examined anatomically, histochemically or immunohistochemically.
Other models addressing tissue repair are detailed under extracellular matrix assays. In vitro models of inflammation are detailed under in vitro inflammation models and assays.

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Rheumatoid arthritis animal model
Price on request

Joint Conditions
In vivo models and tests include:
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Acute joint inflammation
- Osteoarthritis

We have rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis, acute articular joint inflammation and osteoarthritis.
Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms can be induced in the ankles and feet of rats. This model is used for... Show more »

Joint Conditions
In vivo models and tests include:
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Acute joint inflammation
- Osteoarthritis

We have rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis, acute articular joint inflammation and osteoarthritis.
Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms can be induced in the ankles and feet of rats. This model is used for evaluating the prophylactic and the therapeutic activities of test products. Several arthritic inducing agents are available. The clinical symptoms of the condition are assessed as well as the extent of the swelling and inflammation.
Further information can be gained by including histological, biochemical, immunological and molecular biological evaluations as part of the study protocols.

Other models addressing tissue repair are detailed under extracellular matrix assays. In vitro models of inflammation are detailed under in vitro inflammation models and assays.

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Osteoarthritis animal model
Price on request

Joint Conditions
In vivo models and tests include:
- Osteoarthritis
- Acute joint inflammation
- Rheumatoid arthritis

We have rodent models of osteoarthritis, acute articular joint inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.
Many of the chemical, cellular and molecular features of osteoarthritis can be developed in rat knee... Show more »

Joint Conditions
In vivo models and tests include:
- Osteoarthritis
- Acute joint inflammation
- Rheumatoid arthritis

We have rodent models of osteoarthritis, acute articular joint inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.
Many of the chemical, cellular and molecular features of osteoarthritis can be developed in rat knee joints. This model is used to test products or preparations that might modulate osteoarthritis development by administration in either a prophylactic or a therapeutic manner.
The development of the arthritis can be followed clinically by measuring changes in weight-bearing over a period of several weeks. Biochemical changes can be assessed by measuring appropriate serum markers throughout the period of disease progression. At the conclusion of the study or at pre-determined stages, joints can be removed following euthanasia and examined anatomically, histochemically or immunohistochemically.

Other models addressing tissue repair are detailed under extracellular matrix assays. In vitro models of inflammation are detailed under in vitro inflammation models and assays.

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Analgesic animal model
Price on request

Pain is associated with most medical and health conditions. It can be low level, acute, or intermittent. It has severe effects on lifestyle including sleep interruption, reduction of economic production, and diminution of educational achievements. It is the most frequent complaint of patients presenting to health... Show more »

Pain is associated with most medical and health conditions. It can be low level, acute, or intermittent. It has severe effects on lifestyle including sleep interruption, reduction of economic production, and diminution of educational achievements. It is the most frequent complaint of patients presenting to health professionals.
There are a number of mechanisms associated with pain. These involve disruption of neurotransmission and are frequently treated with anti-inflammatory agents. At the cellular level the relief often involves cannaboid or opoid receptors. Modulation of activity of these receptors can affect the level of pain.
Trinity Bioactives has available both in vitro and in vivo models for investigating the analgesic effect of test products, extracts or compounds. All of the methods that are used for these investigations are based on published procedures.

There are several in vivo models for investigating the analgesic effects in animals. These include:
1) the hot plate test where the time before the experimental animal licked its paws or jumped off a warm plate is measured.
2) the formalin test where formalin is injected into a paw and the extent of the paw licking over a defined time period is measured.
3) the writhing test where dilute acetic acid is injected and the extent of torso constrictions/ back arching is measured.
4) the chimney test where the ability of rats or mice to climb backwards up a tube is measured.
There are other tests possible which we would be happy to discuss.

In vitro methods
There are cell culture systems that can be used to investigate analgesic effects. Trinity Bioactives employs the HEK 293 cell line for this. This cell line expresses the µ- opoid receptor. The procedure for investigating pain relief is to include the test samples in cultures of the HEK 293 cells and to assess the effect on the activity of the µ- opoid receptors.

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Obesity Animal Models
Price on request

Obesity and Weight Control
In vitro, mouse and rat animal models are available to investigate the potency and mechanisms of action of preparations that may prevent or reduce obesity.

In vivo models available:
- Fatty liver disease
- High fat diet mouse and rat models
- Metabolic syndrome rodent models
- Satiety
- Zucker... Show more »

Obesity and Weight Control
In vitro, mouse and rat animal models are available to investigate the potency and mechanisms of action of preparations that may prevent or reduce obesity.

In vivo models available:
- Fatty liver disease
- High fat diet mouse and rat models
- Metabolic syndrome rodent models
- Satiety
- Zucker obese rat

Trinity Bioactives uses animal models to investigate the effect of test preparations that either prevent fat deposition and consequent weight gain or that reduce obesity. The accumulation of fat in the animals at sites that are identical to the regions where excess adipose tissue is localized in humans can be affected by dietary manipulation. Our models include the Zucker rat, which has a genetic mutation that affects fatty acid synthesis. Other models are based on dietary and/or lifestyle changes.
Using these models, Trinity records changes in clinical manifestations, and monitors relevant serum markers. At the conclusion of the investigations, autopsies of the animals can be performed and a range of assessments made. These include the extent and localization of fat deposits, changes in relevant metabolic activities as well as histological evaluation.
Studies such as these can be coupled with research into other associated conditions such as satiety and metabolic syndrome.

In vitro models available:
- Hormones, modulators
- Pre-adipocytes
- Primary adipocytes
- Primary hepatocytes

In vitro models can also be used to determine the effect of test preparations on the production of various hormones, enzymes and other modulators of fat metabolism. These include the production of leptin, adiponectin and other regulators by adipocytes. As well, the ability of test products to affect the differentiation of pre-adipocytes to the lipid- producing or lipid-accumulating adipocyte cells.
Liver cells (hepatocytes) are one of the major sites of uptake of molecular nutrients and the conversion of them into fats and lipids which are either stored or metabolised. The storage of fat originates at these cellular sites and can lead to obesity and overweight.

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Wound-Healing Assay
Price on request

Wound and Ulcer Healing
Trinity has several in vitro and in vivo models of wounds to assess the potencies and efficacies of products that promote wound healing.

In vitro models available:
- Angiogenesis
- Extracellular matrix metabolism ... Show more »

Wound and Ulcer Healing
Trinity has several in vitro and in vivo models of wounds to assess the potencies and efficacies of products that promote wound healing.

In vitro models available:
- Angiogenesis
- Extracellular matrix metabolism
- Fibroblast wounds
- Keratinocyte wounds

Trinity has 4 in vitro model systems:
• We have a range of angiogenesis tests that we use to determine pro-angiogenic activity. Pro-angiogenic products can have wound and ulcer healing potential.
• We have a range of extracellular matrix tests. Stimulation by test products of extracellular matrix products such as collagens and elastins in fibroblast cultures and keratin in keratinocyte cultures can indicate skin healing benefits in the later stages of the wound repair process.
• We have recently implemented an established in vitro system to test products on wounds created in human skin fibroblast or keratinocyte cultures. The test product is added to the cultures to measure the effect it has on the rate of wound closure.

In vivo models available:
- Delayed wound healing
- Excisional wounds (healthy rodents)
- Excisional wounds (Diabetic rodents)
- Flaps and scaffolds for wounds

We have a range of models to test the potential of products to accelerate healing. These products can be administered by one of several routes including topical, oral or injected.
The most frequently used model is a full-thickness, excisional wound. The healing wound is photographed digitally at regular intervals and the rate of closure determined using specialist software. Samples of the healing wounds can be excised at various stages of the healing process and examined using a range of approaches such as biochemical analyses, histological and immunohistochemical analyses.
Other animal models available include:
• full-thickness wounds in diabetic animals,
• a delayed wound healing model
• incisional wounds, flaps and scaffolds
These models can also be used to analyze the cellular, biochemical and physiological changes associated with the test products as well as the rate of closure and healing.

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Liver Disease Animal Models
Price on request

Liver function
We have in vitro and in vivo procedures for assessing the effects of test preparations on hepatic function and metabolism.

In vitro models include:
- Hepatocyte cultures
- Liver metabolism

Livers can be isolated... Show more »

Liver function
We have in vitro and in vivo procedures for assessing the effects of test preparations on hepatic function and metabolism.

In vitro models include:
- Hepatocyte cultures
- Liver metabolism

Livers can be isolated from rodents that are either healthy or have induced health or medical conditions. Pure hepatocyte cultures are prepared from these. Most commonly these cells have been used for testing prototype preparations and products for their effects on the metabolism of these cells. Studies can cover a diverse range of aspects including investigations of the fat uptake and storage and the sugar uptake and storage by these cells and the response of these cells to toxins including fibrosis, sclerosis and cirrhosis.

In vivo models include:
- Fibrosis & Sclerosis
- Liver function
- Liver metabolism
- Toxicology

In vivo tests for the hepatic activity of test products use rodents. These may be either in a good state of health or have developed disease or health conditions. The study can include measurement of a wide range of liver function parameters including serum markers. Livers can be excised from the animal at appropriate time points and the cells isolated for further investigation or samples of the liver further analyzed using physiological or histological procedures. Additionally a diverse range of liver functions can be monitored.

Some more detailed studies are described in other sections such as for metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

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Cytotoxicity Assays
Price on request

Trinity Bioactives has a range of analytical, safety and toxicity services that can be undertaken as part of a product development or regulatory study. Cytotoxicity is one such service.

Understanding the side effects or toxicities of new preventative or therapeutic agents is an important component of pre-clinical... Show more »

Trinity Bioactives has a range of analytical, safety and toxicity services that can be undertaken as part of a product development or regulatory study. Cytotoxicity is one such service.

Understanding the side effects or toxicities of new preventative or therapeutic agents is an important component of pre-clinical development.
As a first step in investigating this, the effects of the test preparations on cells characteristic of particular organs should be investigated. The survival of these cells is an important consideration in determining the potential benefit of the preparation.
Trinity Bioactives has an extensive range of cells available which are derived from and characteristic of almost all mammalian tissues and systems. These can be used for studying the possible toxicity of the test preparations with regards to the survival of various organs.

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Diabetes Animal Models
Price on request

Animal models of hyperglycaemia and of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are used for the study of modulation of these diseases.

In vivo models available:
- Diet induced diabetes
- Streptozotocin (Type I)
- Wound healing (diabetic & delayed)
- ZDF rats (Type II)
- Zucker rats ( hyperglycaemia)

Information about these... Show more »

Animal models of hyperglycaemia and of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are used for the study of modulation of these diseases.

In vivo models available:
- Diet induced diabetes
- Streptozotocin (Type I)
- Wound healing (diabetic & delayed)
- ZDF rats (Type II)
- Zucker rats ( hyperglycaemia)

Information about these rodent models:
• Dietary induced diabetes in CB57 mice. Mice are fed a high fat diet. This leads to the development of the features of metabolic syndrome including the characteristics of type II diabetes.
• Streptozotocin induced model for type I diabetes in rats. Type I diabetes is induced in Sprague Dawley rats, test products are administered and their effect on diabetes monitored. The test determines the ability of the test compounds to inhibit the progression or development of type I diabetes.
• A model of diabetic and delayed wound healing using Sprague Dawley rats. This model determines the benefits of products to assist wound healing in rats with type I diabetes. Another model results in a slower rate of healing which is characteristic of wounds associated with diabetes.
• The ZDF rat for type II diabetes. This model uses a ZDF rat which has a decreased response to insulin. The model will indicate what aspects of type II diabetes can be modulated by the test product.
• The Zucker obese rat as a model of hyperglycaemia with accompanying obesity. This model manifests hyperglycaemia, obesity and moderate hypertension. These rats have elevated glucose levels. The test will indicate product efficacy at ameliorating the manifestations and features associated with hyperglycemia and obesity.

Cell and tissue culture models are also available for investigating the uptake and metabolism of sugars and the production of insulin and other hormones and modulators.

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In vitro Diabetes Models
Price on request

Cell and tissue culture models are available for investigating the uptake and metabolism of sugars and the production of insulin and other hormones and modulators.

In vitro models available:
- Culture of pancreatic islets
- Glucose uptake by adipocytes
- Glucose uptake by hepatocytes
- Glucose uptake by skeletal muscle
... Show more »

Cell and tissue culture models are available for investigating the uptake and metabolism of sugars and the production of insulin and other hormones and modulators.

In vitro models available:
- Culture of pancreatic islets
- Glucose uptake by adipocytes
- Glucose uptake by hepatocytes
- Glucose uptake by skeletal muscle

Our in vitro models are used to study the efficacy and potency of test preparations and compounds at modulating sugar uptake and metabolism by cells and tissues. In particular these models investigate the uptake and metabolism by primary hepatocytes and adipocytes and by skeletal muscle.
• Adipocytes- these are isolated and purified from male rats. This test determines the ability of a product to modulate the uptake and metabolism of glucose by fat cells.
• Hepatocytes- these are isolated from rat liver and cultured. This model allows the potential of samples or products to modulate the uptake and metabolism of glucose by liver cells to be assessed.
• Skeletal muscle- the uptake of glucose into muscle is determined by using soleus muscles incubated together with the test material. Trinity can use labeled–glucose to determine what metabolic pathways may be influenced by test samples.

A culture system using pancreatic islet cells has been developed and employed for studying the modulation of the synthesis of insulin and other modulators.

Animal models of hyperglycaemia and of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are also available for the study of modulation of these diseases (see Diabetes animal model).

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Angiogenesis Assays
Price on request

Angiogenesis is the growth of new blood vessels. It is a key element of a number of health conditions, the most notable being most solid cancers, macula degeneration, (diabetic) retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. So inhibition of it may be beneficial in the treatment of them.
Angiogenesis is also an important step... Show more »

Angiogenesis is the growth of new blood vessels. It is a key element of a number of health conditions, the most notable being most solid cancers, macula degeneration, (diabetic) retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. So inhibition of it may be beneficial in the treatment of them.
Angiogenesis is also an important step in the healing and repair of wounds and ulcers. So promotion and stimulation of it may promote this healing.
Trinity has a range of in vitro and in vivo models as summarized below:

In vitro models available:
- BAEC (Bovine aortic endothelial cells)
- Choroid
- Human umbilical – venule/arteriole
- HUVEC (Human umbilical vein endothelial cells)
- Macula/retina
- Rat aortic ring
- Sclera

Trinity Bioactives investigates angiogenesis using both endothelial cell cultures and tissue model systems. These systems can be used to quantify the modulatory effect of test preparations and their mechanisms of action. We use tissue culture systems to determine the effect of test preparations on microvessel formation. These tissues have been sourced from rat aortic rings, human umbilical arteriole and venule pieces, human haemangioma pieces, bovine carotoid artery fragments and retina, macula, choroid and sclera from several species.

In vivo model available:
1.Rat mesenteric window

The Trinity Bioactives in vivo model of angiogenesis involves the induction of angiogenesis in the normally avascular rat mesenteric windows. The effect of the administration of test preparations on angiogenesis can be measured quantitatively.

Angiogenesis models may also be useful to investigate the benefits of test preparations on other conditions such as wound healing or cancer.

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In vitro Bone Models
Price on request

Healthy bone is essential for the structural integrity of all animals including humans. Deficiencies in its metabolism and loss of its structure can have serious and long-term detrimental consequences. These include chronic diseases such as osteoporosis and osteomyelitis and bone cancer and hereditary conditions such as... Show more »

Healthy bone is essential for the structural integrity of all animals including humans. Deficiencies in its metabolism and loss of its structure can have serious and long-term detrimental consequences. These include chronic diseases such as osteoporosis and osteomyelitis and bone cancer and hereditary conditions such as osteogenisis imperfecta.

The dominant cell types in bone tissue are osteoblasts and osteoclasts. They are responsible for the maintenance of the physiological, anatomical and metabolic characteristics of bone. These include the synthesis and degradation of the biochemical constituents such as collagen. They respond to the hormonal and cytokine ligands that regulate their cellular activities.

Trinity Bioactives has available osteoblasts and osteoclasts to investigate the effects that products, preparations or compounds might have on the cells of bone tissue. These included cell proliferation, turnover of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), collagen and other proteins. There are numerous other aspects of bone metabolism that can be investigated using these cells such as the degradative enzymes that are implicated in the catabolism of bone.

Additionally Trinity Bioactives has bone cancer cell cultures available that can be used to investigate the effects on test samples on the viability and growth of the cancer as well as on the mechanism of action.

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Liver Fibrosis Animal Models
Price on request

Liver function
We have in vitro and in vivo procedures for assessing the effects of test preparations on hepatic function and metabolism.

In vitro
- Hepatocyte cultures

In vivo
- Fibrosis & Sclerosis ... Show more »

Liver function
We have in vitro and in vivo procedures for assessing the effects of test preparations on hepatic function and metabolism.

In vitro
- Hepatocyte cultures

In vivo
- Fibrosis & Sclerosis
- Liver function
- Liver metabolism
- Toxicology

Livers can be isolated from rodents that are either healthy or have induced health or medical conditions. Pure hepatocyte cultures are prepared from these. Most commonly these cells have been used for testing prototype preparations and products for their effects on the metabolism of these cells. Studies can cover a diverse range of aspects including investigations of the fat uptake and storage and the sugar uptake and storage by these cells and the response of these cells to toxins including fibrosis, sclerosis and cirrhosis.

In vivo tests for the hepatic activity of test products use rodents. These may be either in a good state of health or have developed disease or health conditions. The study can include measurement of a wide range of liver function parameters including serum markers. Livers can be excised from the animal at appropriate time points and the cells isolated for further investigation or samples of the liver further analyzed using physiological or histological procedures. Additionally a diverse range of liver functions can be monitored.
Some more detailed studies are described in other sections such as for diabetes.

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Ophthalmic Models
Price on request

Trinity has a number of ex vivo tests for ocular conditions.

Ex vivo models available:
- Choroid angiogenesis
- Macula angiogenesis
- Retinal angiogenesis
- Sclera angiogenesis
- Cataracts

Trinity Bioactives can measure the inhibitory effects of compounds on the growth of micro blood vessels to determine the extent to... Show more »

Trinity has a number of ex vivo tests for ocular conditions.

Ex vivo models available:
- Choroid angiogenesis
- Macula angiogenesis
- Retinal angiogenesis
- Sclera angiogenesis
- Cataracts

Trinity Bioactives can measure the inhibitory effects of compounds on the growth of micro blood vessels to determine the extent to which products reduce or prevent angiogenesis.

Cataracts are a problem especially among older people. The lens of the eye becomes opaque or cloudy. We have a screening test for products that may prevent or delay the development of eye cataracts. Trinity has an assay model that induces opacity in lens tissue. Potential inhibitors of cataracts can be added to these lenses and their effects measured quantitatively.

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Toxicity animal model
Price on request

Trinity has a range of analytical, safety and toxicity services that can be undertaken as part of a product development or regulatory study.

In vivo models available:
- Acute
- Chronic
- Reproductive
- Specific systems (eg neuro, renal etc)
- Sub-chronic

Understanding the side effects or toxicities of new preventative... Show more »

Trinity has a range of analytical, safety and toxicity services that can be undertaken as part of a product development or regulatory study.

In vivo models available:
- Acute
- Chronic
- Reproductive
- Specific systems (eg neuro, renal etc)
- Sub-chronic

Understanding the side effects or toxicities of new preventative or therapeutic agents is an important component of pre-clinical development.
It is common to employ animals to investigate the effects of test preparations. Using rodents, Trinity Bioactives has the protocols and experience for undertaking studies on the safety and toxicity properties of test materials. These protocols can cover a diverse range of conditions as indicated in the list above. These tests and models cover both the overall well-being of the test animals and specific systems (e.g. nervous, reproductive) and organs (e.g. liver, brain). As these studies address a wide range of issues the study protocols are developed collaboratively with the client. We are conversant with the FDA, TGA and OECD guidelines and experienced at performing studies under these guidelines.

Trinity Bioactives also has an extensive range of cells available which are derived from and characteristic of almost all mammalian tissues and systems. These can be used for in vitro studies investigating the possible toxicity of the test preparations with regards to the survival of various organs.

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Hypertension Animal Models
Price on request

Trinity has both in vivo and in vitro models to investigate the potential of test products and preparations to change blood pressure.

In vitro models include:
- Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) Inhibition
- ANG Receptors

Trinity has a range of cell culture models for studying the mechanisms of action of potential blood... Show more »

Trinity has both in vivo and in vitro models to investigate the potential of test products and preparations to change blood pressure.

In vitro models include:
- Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) Inhibition
- ANG Receptors

Trinity has a range of cell culture models for studying the mechanisms of action of potential blood pressure modulators. For example, these can be used for studying the effect on the activity of angiotensin receptors or the activity of enzymes such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE).

In vivo models include:
- Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR) Rats

The in vivo models can be used to measure the capacity and potential of test preparations to alter systemic blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) using the appropriate animal models (eg. normotensive or hypertensive). Trinity has equipment specifically constructed for obtaining such data. The effect of test preparations on a range of clinical markers can be determined either simultaneously or separately.
These protocols can be employed as part of other investigations such as cardiovascular, renal, diabetic and metabolic syndrome research.

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Thrombosis Animal Models
Price on request

Trinity uses models to screen preparations that may inhibit or promote thrombosis or may promote the dissolution of fibrin clots. These include in vitro systems that screen for fibrinolytic activity or that measure the ability of test compounds, extracts, preparations or products to inhibit or promote clotting.

In vitro models... Show more »

Trinity uses models to screen preparations that may inhibit or promote thrombosis or may promote the dissolution of fibrin clots. These include in vitro systems that screen for fibrinolytic activity or that measure the ability of test compounds, extracts, preparations or products to inhibit or promote clotting.

In vitro models include:
- Thrombolysis
- Clotting

In vivo models include:
- Platelet function

Trinity has an in vivo model for investigating platelet functions such as clotting. Test materials are administered to rodents and blood pressure and platelet functions recorded over time.

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Anemia Animal Models
Price on request

Trinity has an in vivo model for anaemia. We have conducted this model several times with good results.

Anaemia is produced in rats by feeding them a diet that has a lower than normal iron content. Once anaemia is established, test products that may relieve the condition are administered. The anaemic state is monitored by... Show more »

Trinity has an in vivo model for anaemia. We have conducted this model several times with good results.

Anaemia is produced in rats by feeding them a diet that has a lower than normal iron content. Once anaemia is established, test products that may relieve the condition are administered. The anaemic state is monitored by measuring blood haemoglobin concentrations at regular intervals. The general health of the rats is constantly assessed.
Anaemia is caused by a deficiency of dietary iron. This results in lowered blood haemoglobin levels as well as lowered levels of other important iron-containing proteins such as transferrin and cytochromes which are crucial for energy production. Such deficiencies are serious health risks especially in pregnancy.

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Oxidative Stress Assays
Price on request

In vitro models include:
- Anti-oxidative effects
- Assay of oxidative metabolism
- Lipid oxidation
- Measurement of reactive oxygen
- Oxidation enzymes
- Protein oxidation
- Total anti-oxidative capacity

In vivo models include:
- Assay of oxidative metabolism
- Lipid oxidation
- Measurement of reactive oxygen... Show more »

In vitro models include:
- Anti-oxidative effects
- Assay of oxidative metabolism
- Lipid oxidation
- Measurement of reactive oxygen
- Oxidation enzymes
- Protein oxidation
- Total anti-oxidative capacity

In vivo models include:
- Assay of oxidative metabolism
- Lipid oxidation
- Measurement of reactive oxygen
- Oxidation enzymes
- Protein oxidation
- Total anti-oxidative capacity

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In vitro Cardiovascular Models
Price on request

Trinity has both in vitro and in vivo models to investigate the potential of test products and preparations to change blood pressure.

Trinity has a range of cell culture models for studying the mechanisms of action of potential blood pressure modulators. For example, these can be used for studying the effect on the activity of... Show more »

Trinity has both in vitro and in vivo models to investigate the potential of test products and preparations to change blood pressure.

Trinity has a range of cell culture models for studying the mechanisms of action of potential blood pressure modulators. For example, these can be used for studying the effect on the activity of angiotensin receptors or the activity of enzymes such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE).

In vivo models can be used to measure the capacity and potential of test preparations to alter systemic blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) using appropriate animal models (eg. normotensive or hypertensive). Trinity has equipment specifically constructed for obtaining such data. The effect of test preparations on a range of clinical markers can be determined either simultaneously or separately.

These protocols can be employed as either a dedicated investigation or as part of other investigations such as cardiovascular, renal, diabetic and metabolic syndrome research.

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Custom Cardiovascular Animal Models
Price on request

Trinity has both in vivo and in vitro models to investigate the potential of test products and preparations to change blood pressure.

Trinity has a range of cell culture models for studying the mechanisms of action of potential blood pressure modulators. For example, these can be used for studying the effect on the activity of... Show more »

Trinity has both in vivo and in vitro models to investigate the potential of test products and preparations to change blood pressure.

Trinity has a range of cell culture models for studying the mechanisms of action of potential blood pressure modulators. For example, these can be used for studying the effect on the activity of angiotensin receptors or the activity of enzymes such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE).

The in vivo models can be used to measure the capacity and potential of test preparations to alter systemic blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) using appropriate animal models (eg. normotensive or hypertensive). Trinity has equipment specifically constructed for obtaining such data. The effect of test preparations on a range of clinical markers can be determined either simultaneously or separately.

These protocols can be employed as either a dedicated investigation or as part of other investigations such as cardiovascular, renal, diabetic and metabolic syndrome research.

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Extracellular Matrix Biology
Price on request

We have a broad range of tests to investigate the effects of test products and preparations on the metabolism of extracellular matrix constituents such as collagens, elastin, GAGs and proteoglycans. These are fundamental to the structure and integrity of many tissues. These same tests can also be used to investigate a number of... Show more »

We have a broad range of tests to investigate the effects of test products and preparations on the metabolism of extracellular matrix constituents such as collagens, elastin, GAGs and proteoglycans. These are fundamental to the structure and integrity of many tissues. These same tests can also be used to investigate a number of conditions where fibrosis and cirrhosis occur.

In vitro models available include:
1. Basement membrane
2. Collagen degradation
3. Collagen genetic variants
4. Collagen synthesis
5. Elastin degradation
6. Elastin metabolism
7. Fibroblast cultures
8. Glycosaminoglycans
9. Proteoglycans
10. Smooth muscle cell cultures

In vivo models available include:
1. Collagen composition and metabolism
2. Elastin composition and metabolism
3. Extracellular matrix
4. Fibrosis models
5. Glycosaminoglycan, proteoglycan composition and metabolism

Trinity Bioactives uses an extensive range of cells, tissues or organ cultures and organs from rodent models for investigating extracellular matrix metabolism.
We can undertake quantitation of collagen (both total and specific genetic variants), elastin, keratin and other extracellular proteins including basement membrane components. The turnover of these molecules can be determined. We can also quantify various glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans.
All of these extracellular matrix constituents can be measured in biological samples.
Many of the enzymes involved in both the synthesis and degradation activities can be measured both quantitatively and by their activities.

These analytical procedures can be applied to investigations of the composition of biological samples, to the effect of test materials on the metabolism and the structure of almost any organ or tissue and to the effect of the modulation of environmental influences on extracellular metabolism and composition.

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Cell Viability Assays
Price on request

Essential to the well-being of organs and tissues is the health of the cells. There are laboratory methods available at Trinity Bioactives to maintain cells from a wide range of tissues and body fluids. This enables investigations to be undertaken so effects of test substances, preparations and products on the viability, proliferation and survival of particular cells can be determined.

Essential to the well-being of organs and tissues is the health of the cells. There are laboratory methods available at Trinity Bioactives to maintain cells from a wide range of tissues and body fluids. This enables investigations to be undertaken so effects of test substances, preparations and products on the viability, proliferation and survival of particular cells can be determined.

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MTT and MTS Assays
Price on request
Request a quote for more information about this service.
Cell Proliferation Assays
Price on request

Essential to the well-being of organs and tissues is the health of the cells. There are laboratory methods available at Trinity Bioactives to maintain cells from a wide range of tissues and body fluids. This enables investigations to be undertaken so effects of test substances, preparations and products on the viability, proliferation and survival of particular cells can be determined.

Essential to the well-being of organs and tissues is the health of the cells. There are laboratory methods available at Trinity Bioactives to maintain cells from a wide range of tissues and body fluids. This enables investigations to be undertaken so effects of test substances, preparations and products on the viability, proliferation and survival of particular cells can be determined.

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Cataract Models
Price on request
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Macular Degeneration Models
Price on request
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Diabetic Retinopathy Models
Price on request
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In vitro Disease Model Services
Price on request
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Microbial Testing
Price on request
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Custom Cell-Based Assays
Price on request
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Cell Services Consulting
Price on request
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Assay Development Consulting
Price on request
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