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Micromyx

Kalamazoo, MI, US

Micromyx is a microbiology services company specializing in anti-infective discovery and development for the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and animal health industries.

Founded in 2004 by former pharmaceutical industry infectious disease scientists, Micromyx is a unique contract research organization that offers clients documented, top of the line laboratory services from experts who have successfully gained FDA approval of new antibiotics.

Micromyx will customize the relationship with each client. We can provide either stand-alone assay services to meet the client's specific needs, or we can establish a collaborative discovery program for exploratory projects.

Publications

  • Shinabarger D, Zurenko GE, Hesje CK, Sanfilippo CM, Morris TW, Haas W. 2011. Evaluation of the effect of bacterial efflux pumps on the antibacterial activity of the novel fluoroquinolone besifloxacin. J. Chemother. ... Show more »

Micromyx is a microbiology services company specializing in anti-infective discovery and development for the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and animal health industries.

Founded in 2004 by former pharmaceutical industry infectious disease scientists, Micromyx is a unique contract research organization that offers clients documented, top of the line laboratory services from experts who have successfully gained FDA approval of new antibiotics.

Micromyx will customize the relationship with each client. We can provide either stand-alone assay services to meet the client's specific needs, or we can establish a collaborative discovery program for exploratory projects.

Publications

  • Shinabarger D, Zurenko GE, Hesje CK, Sanfilippo CM, Morris TW, Haas W. 2011. Evaluation of the effect of bacterial efflux pumps on the antibacterial activity of the novel fluoroquinolone besifloxacin. J. Chemother. 23:80-86.
  • Davies TA, Queenan AM, Morrow BJ, Shang W, Amsler K, He W, Lynch AS, Pillar C, Flamm RK Longitudinal survey of carbapenem
    resistance and resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters from the USA in 2007-09. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011 Jul 20.
  • Haas, W., C. M. Pillar, C. K. Hesje, C. M. Sanfilippo, and T. W. Morris. In vitro time-kill experiments with besifloxacin, moxifloxacin
    and gatifloxacin in the absence and presence of benzalkonium chloride. J Antimicrob Chemother 2011;66:840-4.
  • Haas, W., C. M. Pillar, M. Torres, T. W. Morris, and D. F. Sahm..Monitoring Antibiotic Resistance in Ocular Microorganisms:
    Results from the Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular MicRorganisms (ARMOR) 2009 Surveillance Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011
  • Butler MM, Williams JD, Peet NP, Moir DT, Panchal RG, Bavari S, Shinabarger DL, Bowlin TL. 2010. Comparative in vitro activity profiles of novel bis-indole antibacterials against gram-positive and gram-negative clinical isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54:3974-3977.
  • Sweeney M, Watts J, Portis E, Lucas M, Nutsch R, Meeuwse D, Bade D, Oliver V, Morck DW, Shinabarger D, Poppe S, Peterson M, Sweeney D, Knechtel M, Zurenko G. 2010. Identification of Porphyromonas levii isolated from clinical cases of bovine interdigital necrobacillosis
    by 16S rRNA sequencing. Vet. Ther. 10: E1 – E10.
  • Arhin, F. F., G. Moeck, D. C. Draghi, C. M. Pillar, and D. F. Sahm. Longitudinal analysis of the in vitro activity profile of oritavancin
    and comparator glycopeptides against Gram-positive organisms from Europe: 2005-2008. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2010;36:474-6.
  • Haas, W., C. M. Pillar, C. K. Hesje, C. M. Sanfilippo, and T. W. Morris. Bactericidal activity of besifloxacin against staphylococci,
    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. J Antimicrob Chemother 2010;65:1441-7.
  • Schaadt R, Sweeney D, Shinabarger D, Zurenko G. 2009. In vitro activity of TR-700, the active ingredient of the antibacterial prodrug TR-701, a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial agent. Antimicrob. Agents
    Chemother
    . 53:3236-3239.
  • Shaw KJ, Poppe S, Schaadt R, Brown-Driver V, Finn J, Pillar CM, Shinabarger D, Zurenko G. 2008. In vitro activity of TR-700, the antibacterial moiety of the prodrug TR-701, against linezolid-resistant strains. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:4442-4447.
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Micromyx has not listed any services.

Method development
Price on request
  • Development of Disk Diffusion test for evaluating susceptibility
  • Evaluation of Agar Dilution MIC Correlation with broth microdilution MICs
  • Evaluation of Testing Parameters on in Vitro Activity(e.g. pH, inoculum size, cation concentration, etc.)
  • Assessment of Protein Binding by Testing Susceptibility in the presence of... Show more »
  • Development of Disk Diffusion test for evaluating susceptibility
  • Evaluation of Agar Dilution MIC Correlation with broth microdilution MICs
  • Evaluation of Testing Parameters on in Vitro Activity(e.g. pH, inoculum size, cation concentration, etc.)
  • Assessment of Protein Binding by Testing Susceptibility in the presence of human serum
  • Development of Tier 1 and Tier 2 Quality Control Ranges in accordance with CLSI M23
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Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis
Price on request

For analysis of patient isolates (treatment failures) and epidemiological typing (e.g. USA typing of S. aureus)

For analysis of patient isolates (treatment failures) and epidemiological typing (e.g. USA typing of S. aureus)

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Bioinformatics
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Bioinformatics to align sequences and provide a comparison to reference genes

Bioinformatics to align sequences and provide a comparison to reference genes

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PCR
Price on request

PCR of genes involved in resistance and/or target identification

PCR of genes involved in resistance and/or target identification

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Bacterial Identification
Price on request

Micromyx has conducted a variety of projects involving the isolation and identification of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from tissues, fluids, feces, and medical device implants. The following techniques are used to identify bacteria from these sources:

  • Bacterial identification
  • Crystal ID (Biochemical based... Show more »

Micromyx has conducted a variety of projects involving the isolation and identification of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from tissues, fluids, feces, and medical device implants. The following techniques are used to identify bacteria from these sources:

  • Bacterial identification
  • Crystal ID (Biochemical based identification system, Becton Dickinson)
  • 16S rRNA gene sequencing
  • Selective and differential media to determine presumptive identification, followed by either Crystal ID or 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
  • Growth on Selective and Diffential Media
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High Throughput Screening
Price on request

Micromyx has conducted a variety of high throughput screens of compound collections using the Biomek FX platform:

  • Whole cell screens of bacteria, yeast, and fungi utilizing compound collections arrayed in 96-well plates
  • End points of whole cell screens could include either MIC values, absorbance of culture readings using a... Show more »

Micromyx has conducted a variety of high throughput screens of compound collections using the Biomek FX platform:

  • Whole cell screens of bacteria, yeast, and fungi utilizing compound collections arrayed in 96-well plates
  • End points of whole cell screens could include either MIC values, absorbance of culture readings using a Spectramax, or Alamar Blue readings
  • Enzymatic screens using compound collections
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Drug Mechanism of Action Studies
Mechanism of Action Studies
Price on request

Determining the mechanism of action (MOA) of new agents is essential to the discovery process and is also a required component of the Investigational New Drug (IND) filing. Micromyx utilizes a variety of whole cell, molecular, and biochemical techniques to determine the MOA:

Macromolecular Synthesis Labeling

Whole cell... Show more »

Determining the mechanism of action (MOA) of new agents is essential to the discovery process and is also a required component of the Investigational New Drug (IND) filing. Micromyx utilizes a variety of whole cell, molecular, and biochemical techniques to determine the MOA:

Macromolecular Synthesis Labeling

Whole cell assays involving specific radiolabeling of DNA, RNA, protein, cell wall, and lipid pathways. Inhibition of each pathway is examined using concentrations of the test agent above and below the MIC value.

Models established in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile.

In vitro Transcription/Translation Assay

Antimicrobial agents that are shown to inhibit protein synthesis in the macromolecular synthesis assay (shown above) are further validated using an E. coli extract and luciferase reporter system. An IC50 value is generated and compared to the MIC of the test agent.

Cell Permeability Assay

Effect of Polymyxin B on ATP Release From Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213

Antimicrobial agents that target the cell membrane and cause leakage of essential small molecules are assessed by measuring the leakage of ATP into the growth medium as the cells are dosed with concentrations of the test agent above and below the MIC value.

Enzyme Assays

Micromyx can evaluate the ability of test agents to inhibit enzymatic reactions in either crude extracts or in purified enzyme systems.

Red blood cell lysis

Using red blood cells of any available orgin (human, sheep, mouse, etc.), test agents are dosed at levels above and below the MIC value. In order to assess lysis, hemoglobin release is measured using a spectrophotometer.

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Antibacterial Resistance Development Studies
Price on request

An assessment of the ability of bacteria to develop resistance to new agents is an important early consideration in the discovery phase. Micromyx utilizes the following assays to provide resistance development data:

  • Spontaneous mutation frequency: evaluation of frequency with which mutants emerge to an agent in a single step... Show more »

An assessment of the ability of bacteria to develop resistance to new agents is an important early consideration in the discovery phase. Micromyx utilizes the following assays to provide resistance development data:

  • Spontaneous mutation frequency: evaluation of frequency with which mutants emerge to an agent in a single step when exposed to suprainhibitory concentrations (4X, 8X the MIC)
  • Serial transfer/passage: propensity for mutants to emerge after repeated exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of the agent, as measured by increasing MICs
  • Spiral gradient plating: Gradient plates are prepared that contain subtle changes in the antibiotic concentration throughout the agar. This provides a greater opportunity to select for resistance development.
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Antimicrobial Effectiveness Testing
Price on request

Following CLSI protocols, Micromyx conducts an assessment of an antimicrobial agent’s ability to kill target organisms using the following assays:

Assays Conducted in Accordance with CLSI M26

  • Time-kill: Evaluation of viable bacteria over time when exposed to the agent
  • MBC (Minimal Bactericidal Concentration): Extension... Show more »

Following CLSI protocols, Micromyx conducts an assessment of an antimicrobial agent’s ability to kill target organisms using the following assays:

Assays Conducted in Accordance with CLSI M26

  • Time-kill: Evaluation of viable bacteria over time when exposed to the agent
  • MBC (Minimal Bactericidal Concentration): Extension of MIC testing, well in which there is a 99.9% kill of inoculated bacteria
  • MFC (Minimal Fungicidal Concentration)
  • Serum Bactericidal Titer (SBT): Assay of drug mediated bactericidal activity in patient serum samples
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Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Assay
Price on request
  • Broth microdilution: Custom panels are created using a 96-well format. Compounds can be provided
    as dry powders or as DMSO solutions.

  • Agar dilution: Compounds can be provided as dry powders or as DMSO solutions.

  • Disk diffusion: Using manufactured disks or disks made in house

  • Repository of Clinical Isolates:... Show more »

  • Broth microdilution: Custom panels are created using a 96-well format. Compounds can be provided
    as dry powders or as DMSO solutions.

  • Agar dilution: Compounds can be provided as dry powders or as DMSO solutions.

  • Disk diffusion: Using manufactured disks or disks made in house

  • Repository of Clinical Isolates: Recent clinical isolates of prevalent Gram-positive and negative pathogens, including anaerobic pathogens, available for screening. Isolates with genetically characterized resistance mechanisms (e.g. KPC, NDM-1, OXA) also available.

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Experimental Design
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Project Management & Consulting Services
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Antimicrobial Activity Testing
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Electrophoresis
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Gel Electrophoresis
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Biology
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Biostatistics & Bioinformatics
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Purification Services
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Microbiology, Virology, and Parasitology
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Chemistry and Materials
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DNA
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Medicinal Chemistry
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Analytical Chemistry Services
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Hit Identification
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Drug Discovery & Development
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Computational & Statistical Analysis
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Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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Drug Discovery
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Nucleic Acid Services
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Microbiology Assays
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2018-01-26 06:25:52 +1300

Net Promoter Score of 8 received for Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Assay.

Additional Ratings: satisfaction with deliverable: 9, satisfaction with timeliness: 4.

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