Micromyx is a microbiology services company specializing in anti-infective discovery and development for the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and animal health industries.
Founded in 2004 by former pharmaceutical industry infectious disease scientists, Micromyx is a unique contract research organization that offers clients documented, top of the line laboratory services from experts who have successfully gained FDA approval of new antibiotics.
Micromyx will customize the relationship with each client. We can provide either stand-alone assay services to meet the client's specific needs, or we can establish a collaborative discovery program for exploratory projects.
Isolate, identify, and characterize organisms from feces, skin, other sources
Grow organisms in monoculture or in consortia under optimized conditions
Process organisms and/or growth media
Ship processed material or live organisms to destination of choice
Isolation of biologically active cellular or media components
For analysis of patient isolates (treatment failures) and epidemiological typing (e.g. USA typing of S. aureus)
Bioinformatics to align sequences and provide a comparison to reference genes
Micromyx has conducted a variety of projects involving the isolation and identification of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from tissues, fluids, feces, and medical device implants. The following techniques are used to identify bacteria from these sources:
Micromyx has conducted a variety of high throughput screens of compound collections using the Biomek FX platform:
Determining the mechanism of action (MOA) of new agents is essential to the discovery process and is also a required component of the Investigational New Drug (IND) filing. Micromyx utilizes a variety of whole cell, molecular, and biochemical techniques to determine the MOA:
Macromolecular Synthesis Labeling
Whole cell assays involving specific radiolabeling of DNA, RNA, protein, cell wall, and lipid pathways. Inhibition of each pathway is examined using concentrations of the test agent above and below the MIC value.
Models established in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile.
In vitro Transcription/Translation Assay
Antimicrobial agents that are shown to inhibit protein synthesis in the macromolecular synthesis assay (shown above) are further validated using an E. coli extract and luciferase reporter system. An IC50 value is generated and compared to the MIC of the test agent.
Cell Permeability Assay
Effect of Polymyxin B on ATP Release From Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213
Antimicrobial agents that target the cell membrane and cause leakage of essential small molecules are assessed by measuring the leakage of ATP into the growth medium as the cells are dosed with concentrations of the test agent above and below the MIC value.
Micromyx can evaluate the ability of test agents to inhibit enzymatic reactions in either crude extracts or in purified enzyme systems.
Red blood cell lysis
Using red blood cells of any available orgin (human, sheep, mouse, etc.), test agents are dosed at levels above and below the MIC value. In order to assess lysis, hemoglobin release is measured using a spectrophotometer.
An assessment of the ability of bacteria to develop resistance to new agents is an important early consideration in the discovery phase. Micromyx utilizes the following assays to provide resistance development data:
Following CLSI protocols, Micromyx conducts an assessment of an antimicrobial agent’s ability to kill target organisms using the following assays:
Assays Conducted in Accordance with CLSI M26
Broth microdilution: Custom panels are created using a 96-well format. Compounds can be provided
as dry powders or as DMSO solutions.
Agar dilution: Compounds can be provided as dry powders or as DMSO solutions.
Disk diffusion: Using manufactured disks or disks made in house
Repository of Clinical Isolates: Recent clinical isolates of prevalent Gram-positive and negative pathogens, including anaerobic pathogens, available for screening. Isolates with genetically characterized resistance mechanisms (e.g. KPC, NDM-1, OXA) also available.
Clinical Microbiology, Virology and Parasitology Services
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