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DRIK, LLC

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Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, US

About DRIK, LLC

Born in 2012 from the idea of creating a platform that foster new paradigms of testing including organotypic slice culture for our pharmaceutical, biotechnology, cosmetic and chemical community.

A pre clinical toxicology services laboratory for drug safety evaluation. Yes, we do preclinical screening tests... Show more »

Born in 2012 from the idea of creating a platform that foster new paradigms of testing including organotypic slice culture for our pharmaceutical, biotechnology, cosmetic and chemical community.

A pre clinical toxicology services laboratory for drug safety evaluation. Yes, we do preclinical screening tests for cosmetic industry. We also do non clinical toxicology testing for chemical manufacturing.

We understand the risk involved and the time constraints of live science company in developing the product. Cognizant of the fact , we would like to ease the pain involved by providing service that you would cherish. Customer satisfaction and integrated quality of studies are the driving force for us while we keep the prices affordable. Simply, to fill gap between east coast and west coast toxicology CRO with mid west price.

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Our Services (22)


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Drug Induced Phospholipidosis (PLD) Assay

Price on request
Request a quote for more information about this service.

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In silico Cardiac Safety Assessment

Price on request

In Silico approaches help in determination of toxic liability of a pharmacophore. In collaboration with Leadscope database currently used by FDA. we help clients to determine the toxicity profile of compound/s.

In Silico approaches help in determination of toxic liability of a pharmacophore. In collaboration with Leadscope database currently used by FDA. we help clients to determine the toxicity profile of compound/s.

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In vivo Toxicity Testing

Price on request

Acute Study:

  • To determine the Median Lethal Dose/Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) and No Observable Effect Level (NOEL)
  • Identify potential target organs for toxicity, determine reversibility of toxicity, and identify parameters for clinical monitoring
  • Duration of Study: A few days to 2 weeks after a single dose
  • Route... Show more »

Acute Study:

  • To determine the Median Lethal Dose/Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) and No Observable Effect Level (NOEL)
  • Identify potential target organs for toxicity, determine reversibility of toxicity, and identify parameters for clinical monitoring
  • Duration of Study: A few days to 2 weeks after a single dose
  • Route of administration: Multiple routes possible, depending on the need and requirement
  • End points: Mortality, Clinical pathology, Gross necropsy, Weight change, Signs of toxicity

Sub-acute Study:

  • To determine toxicity after repeated administration of the test compound
  • Establish doses for sub-chronic studies
  • Duration of Study: 14 days
  • Route of administration: Given by the same routes as previous toxicity tests
  • End points: Mortality, Signs of toxicity, Pathology and histopathology, Weight change, Clinical pathology

Sub-chronic Study:

  • To establish a “no observable effect level” (NOEL) and characterize dose-response relationships following repeated doses.
  • To identify and characterize specific organs affected after repeated administration
  • Select appropriate dose for chronic exposure studies
  • Duration of Study: Rodent and a higher species- 14d to 6-12m
  • Route of administration: Same routes as previous toxicity tests, the lowest dose producing no apparent toxicity and the highest dose producing not more than 10% mortality
  • End points: Mortality, Clinical pathology, Gross necropsy, Weight change, Signs of toxicity
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ADME/DMPK Studies

Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Price on request

Quality and accuracy of early in vitro and in vivo studies occupy an essential role in drug discovery and development processes. While the primary goal of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) study is to discover high-affinity ligands against the target, monitoring of drug-like properties is also accomplished.... Show more »

Quality and accuracy of early in vitro and in vivo studies occupy an essential role in drug discovery and development processes. While the primary goal of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) study is to discover high-affinity ligands against the target, monitoring of drug-like properties is also accomplished. The foremost reasons for the failure of many new drug candidates are poor Pharmacokinetic (PK), ADME and Toxicological characteristics. The above factors alone account for up to 50% of the attrition rate of new drug candidates during the drug development process. The high cost of R&D and fast pace with which modern medicinal chemists can synthesize new compounds places a high demand on early ADME/PK groups.

To optimize the pharmacokinetic characteristics of a drug candidate ADME studies are performed. It helps in identification of the metabolic pathways and provides valuable input for the design of in vivo studies. We offer cost-efficient standardized and customized assays as per the client’s requirement for ADME parameters. ADME capabilities of DRIK include the following:

Physicochemical Studies:

  • Partition coefficient (LogD/LogP)
  • Solubility (UV/Visible spectroscopy)
  • Chemical stability at different pH
  • Biological matrix stability (serum/plasma/blood/microsomal/hepatocytes/tissue homogenates /simulating fluids)

Absorption/Distribution Assays:

  • PAMPA (parallel artificial membrane permeability assay)
  • Caco-2 permeability study
  • Tissue permeability studies – Franz Diffusion Assay

Metabolism:

  • CYP inhibition/Induction (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4)
  • Drug–Drug Interaction (DDI) studies
  • Pathway determination (Phase I and Phase II)
  • Half-life/clearance determination using Microsomes / Hepatocytes / S9 fractions / CYP across species (Human/Rat/Mouse/Dog)
  • Metabolite identification with Microsomes/Hepatocytes and S9 fraction across species (Rat/Mouse/Dog/Human)

Note:
CYP Inhibitor: Furafylline, Pilocarpine, Quercetin, Fluconazole, Ticlopidine,
CYP Inducer: Omeprazole, Rifampicin, Phenytoin, Quinidine, Ketoconazole

Bio-analysis:

We have the capabilities to undertake medium to high throughput Bio-analysis and method development through our partners.

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Xenograft Models

Price on request

Mouse models of cancer have consistently been used to determine the in vivo activity of new anti-cancer therapeutics prior to clinical development and testing in humans. The most widely used one is the human tumor xenograft model. In this model, human tumor cells (patient derived tumors (PDX) or tumor cell lines) are transplanted,... Show more »

Mouse models of cancer have consistently been used to determine the in vivo activity of new anti-cancer therapeutics prior to clinical development and testing in humans. The most widely used one is the human tumor xenograft model. In this model, human tumor cells (patient derived tumors (PDX) or tumor cell lines) are transplanted, either under the skin (xenograft) or directly into the organ (orthotopic) in which the tumor originated or associated, into immunocompromised (nude or SCID) mice that do not reject human cells. The resultant tumor and the response to appropriate therapeutic regimes can be studied in vivo. DRIK utilizes commercially available tumor cell lines or cell lines provided by our customer. Assessment of tumor growth and size can be visualized via bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Based on our customer requirements, DRIK can perform the studies at your earliest. The study process is not limited to, cell culturing & cell implantation, animal weight measurement, determination of tumor size, blood sampling, organ sampling, paraffin embedding of tumors or organs and histopathology.

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Orthotopic Tumor Animal Models

Price on request

Mouse models of cancer have consistently been used to determine the in vivo activity of new anti-cancer therapeutics prior to clinical development and testing in humans. The most widely used one is the human tumor xenograft model. In this model, human tumor cells (patient derived tumors (PDX) or tumor cell lines) are transplanted,... Show more »

Mouse models of cancer have consistently been used to determine the in vivo activity of new anti-cancer therapeutics prior to clinical development and testing in humans. The most widely used one is the human tumor xenograft model. In this model, human tumor cells (patient derived tumors (PDX) or tumor cell lines) are transplanted, either under the skin (xenograft) or directly into the organ (orthotopic) in which the tumor originated or associated, into immunocompromised (nude or SCID) mice that do not reject human cells. The resultant tumor and the response to appropriate therapeutic regimes can be studied in vivo. DRIK utilizes commercially available tumor cell lines or cell lines provided by our customer. Assessment of tumor growth and size can be visualized via bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Based on our customer requirements, DRIK can perform the studies at your earliest. The study process is not limited to, cell culturing & cell implantation, animal weight measurement, determination of tumor size, blood sampling, organ sampling, paraffin embedding of tumors or organs and histopathology.

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PBPK Modeling

In silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
Price on request

Drik determines the Median Lethal Dose/Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) and No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) in toxicity studies. PK/PD Pharmacokinetic modeling enable selection of appropriate dose levels. Cancer model available include cell lines of interest, xenograft, orthotopic and PDX studies. Drugs marketed should be... Show more »

Drik determines the Median Lethal Dose/Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) and No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) in toxicity studies. PK/PD Pharmacokinetic modeling enable selection of appropriate dose levels. Cancer model available include cell lines of interest, xenograft, orthotopic and PDX studies. Drugs marketed should be safe and be effective to patients. Evaluating mechanism of drug action or drug metabolites resulting in toxicity can be evaluated. Drug discovery includes many studies to define proof of concept. But most important step includes pre-clinical research and clinical trials.

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Organotypic Cell Culture

Price on request

We are proud to introduce the in vitro organotypic slice culture (also known as organ culture) model for determination of toxicity of compounds. The advantages of the model is that the system represents

Presence of all cell types without any disturbance of natural milieu; Duration-dose dependent changes can be studied... Show more »

We are proud to introduce the in vitro organotypic slice culture (also known as organ culture) model for determination of toxicity of compounds. The advantages of the model is that the system represents

Presence of all cell types without any disturbance of natural milieu; Duration-dose dependent changes can be studied (ability to study changes for 14 days or more; not possible with cell lines); Ability to track the cellular changes in real time and derive a dose-response curve.

Organ culture is a step closer to use of the actual living animal, as it consists of multicellular tissue supported by stromal elements. At present, we do offer organotypic slice cultures derived from rat pups (post-natal day 7-10) and also from young adult rats. The slices are viable for more than a month following a 7-14 day maturation period. End points to be studied will be custom designed depending on the client requirements.

Most common studies in slice cultures we provide include

  • Viability and Cytotoxicity
  • Cell signaling and communication
  • Invasion and motility
  • Tissue regeneration
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In vitro Drug-Drug Interaction Studies

Price on request

Quality and accuracy of early in vitro and in vivo studies occupy an essential role in drug discovery and development processes. While the primary goal of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) study is to discover high-affinity ligands against the target, monitoring of drug-like properties is also accomplished.... Show more »

Quality and accuracy of early in vitro and in vivo studies occupy an essential role in drug discovery and development processes. While the primary goal of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) study is to discover high-affinity ligands against the target, monitoring of drug-like properties is also accomplished. The foremost reasons for the failure of many new drug candidates are poor Pharmacokinetic (PK), ADME and Toxicological characteristics. The above factors alone account for up to 50% of the attrition rate of new drug candidates during the drug development process. The high cost of R&D and fast pace with which modern medicinal chemists can synthesize new compounds places a high demand on early ADME/PK groups.

To optimize the pharmacokinetic characteristics of a drug candidate ADME studies are performed. It helps in identification of the metabolic pathways and provides valuable input for the design of in vivo studies. We offer cost-efficient standardized and customized assays as per the client’s requirement for ADME parameters. ADME capabilities of DRIK include the following:

Physicochemical Studies

  • Partition coefficient (LogD/LogP)
  • Solubility (UV/Visible spectroscopy)
  • Chemical stability at different pH
  • Biological matrix stability (serum/plasma/blood/microsomal/hepatocytes/tissue homogenates /simulating fluids)
  • Reversible and time dependent CYP induction
  • 3D Slices

Absorption/Distribution Assays

  • PAMPA (parallel artificial membrane permeability assay)
  • Caco-2 permeability study
  • Tissue permeability studies – Franz Diffusion Assay

Metabolism

  • CYP inhibition/Induction (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4)
  • Drug–Drug Interaction (DDI) studies
  • Pathway determination (Phase I and Phase II)
  • Half-life/clearance determination using Microsomes / Hepatocytes / S9 fractions / CYP across species (Human/Rat/Mouse/Dog)
  • Metabolite identification with Microsomes/Hepatocytes and S9 fraction across species (Rat/Mouse/Dog/Human)

Note:
CYP Inhibitor: Furafylline, Pilocarpine, Quercetin, Fluconazole, Ticlopidine,
CYP Inducer: Omeprazole, Rifampicin, Phenytoin, Quinidine, Ketoconazole

Bio-analysis

We have the capabilities to undertake medium to high throughput Bio-analysis and method development through our partners.

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In vitro Neurotoxicity Testing

Price on request

In addition to toxicity studies in different cell lines such as immortalized cell lines or primary cultures, Drik can also study the toxicity of test compounds in brain slice cultures. The slices survive for more than a month and provide a window of opportunity to study mechanism of action. The following markers can be ascertained... Show more »

In addition to toxicity studies in different cell lines such as immortalized cell lines or primary cultures, Drik can also study the toxicity of test compounds in brain slice cultures. The slices survive for more than a month and provide a window of opportunity to study mechanism of action. The following markers can be ascertained in these studies:

Mechanistic toxicology:

To understand mechanism of action, the following assay end points are offered by Drik:

  • Cell viability
    • MTT
    • Neutral red
    • LDH
  • Cell death
    • Propidium iodide
    • Fluorojade B
  • CYP inhibition; DDI
  • Mitochondrail toxicity
  • Phospholipidosis; Steatosis
  • Apoptosis (Casp3/7/8/9), BrDU
  • Autophagy
  • Necrosis
  • GSH; Oxygen radical absorbance
  • Screening panel
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In vitro Cardiotoxicity Screening

Price on request

Cardiotoxicity is becoming one of the most important complications of drug development and their treatments. Cardiac toxicity represents a new development or a worsening of arrhythmias in patients with or without clinical symptoms. The following markers recommended by Predictive Safety Testing Consortium can be assayed in addition... Show more »

Cardiotoxicity is becoming one of the most important complications of drug development and their treatments. Cardiac toxicity represents a new development or a worsening of arrhythmias in patients with or without clinical symptoms. The following markers recommended by Predictive Safety Testing Consortium can be assayed in addition to traditional toxicity markers:

Natriuretic Peptides (NPs), LDH, CK isozymes, AST, SGOT, myoglobin, myosin, cardiolipin, Troponins (TIC)

Mechanistic toxicology

To understand mechanism of action, the following assay end points are offered by Drik:

  • Cell viability
    • MTT
    • Neutral red
    • LDH
  • Cell death
    • Propidium iodide
    • Fluorojade B
  • CYP inhibition; DDI
  • Mitochondrail toxicity
  • Phospholipidosis; Steatosis
  • Apoptosis (Casp3/7/8/9), BrDU
  • Autophagy
  • Necrosis
  • GSH; Oxygen radical absorbance
  • Screening panel
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In vitro Toxicity Testing

Price on request

Drug screening is a long and costly process. It is big challenge in using animals as model to confirm with low productivity. It limits the discovery of new drugs. To reduce the number of animals in tests and to accelerate drug discovery process, recent efforts have been dedicated to developing cell-based high throughput screening.... Show more »

Drug screening is a long and costly process. It is big challenge in using animals as model to confirm with low productivity. It limits the discovery of new drugs. To reduce the number of animals in tests and to accelerate drug discovery process, recent efforts have been dedicated to developing cell-based high throughput screening. It helps to improve and fasten the drug screening process. It provides more relevant to in vivo biological information. The data obtained from tissue culture help pharma industry to determine potential efficacy and safety (e.g., predictive toxicity) of drug candidates. In vitro cell culture also provides information about morphology and cellular functions such as cell-cycle status, health and viability, and cell signaling pathways in drug discovery. We provide these services as per the industry requirement.

Most common service we provide in the cell lines are

  • Cell viability
  • Cell cytotoxicity
  • Apotosis assay (Caspase 2,3,6,7,8 and 9 assay)
  • Cancer research

Toxicity study with primary culture of human and animal hepatocytes and also in induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC)

Stem cells are distinct self-replenishing cell population whose primary function is to generate progeny that develop into terminally differentiated cell types, such as a cardiomyocytes, neurons or receptors. This ability of cells known as “pluripotency” is a hallmark of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Stem cells belong to one of two major categories according to their potency of differentiation: organ-specific stem cells and pluripotent stem cells. Organ-specific stem cells generally have limited potential for growth and differentiation. In contrast, pluripotent stem cells, such as ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) replicate in culture dishes and are theoretically capable of giving rise to any of the cell types found in the body.

Most of the drug fails at preclinical stage because of liver toxicity and alterations of hepatic physiology. In addition, drug-induced liver injury is the most common reason for market withdrawal of approved drugs due to safety concerns. It is really difficult to predict liver toxicity because lack of biologically relevant and predictive model systems. Stem cells of hepatocytes will overcome these limitations and provide well-characterized, highly reproducible, and readily available human hepatocytes for preclinical drug development and safety testing.

Drik provide services for human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes. These human cardiac and hepatocytes cells are specifically designed to aid drug discovery and improve the predictability against structurally diverse drugs. They help researchers to better understand and optimize the predictive algorithm for applications in discovery toxicology, cardiac and liver safety screening. We obtained these iPSC from reliable source of well-characterized, highly reproducible, and readily available for preclinical drug development and safety testing.

Mechanistic toxicology

To understand mechanism of action, the following assay end points are offered by Drik:

  • Cell viability
    • MTT
    • Neutral red
    • LDH
  • Cell death
    • Propidium iodide
    • Fluorojade B
  • CYP inhibition CYP induction; DDI
  • Mitochondrail toxicity
  • Phospholipidosis; Steatosis
  • Apoptosis (Casp3/7/8/9), BrDU
  • Autophagy
  • Necrosis
  • GSH; Oxygen radical absorbance
  • Screening panel
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Cell and Tissue Culture

Price on request

Cell and Tissue Culture Services

Cell and Tissue Culture Services

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Cells and Tissues

Price on request

Cells and Tissues Services

Cells and Tissues Services

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Biology

Price on request

Biology Services

Biology Services

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Toxicology

Price on request

Toxicology Services

Toxicology Services

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Pharmacology & Toxicology

Price on request

Pharmacology & Toxicology Services

Pharmacology & Toxicology Services

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Oncology Animal Models

Price on request

Oncology Animal Models Services

Oncology Animal Models Services

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Animal Models of Disease

Price on request

Animal Models of Disease Services

Animal Models of Disease Services

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Animal Models and Studies

Price on request

Animal Models and Studies Services

Animal Models and Studies Services

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Drug Discovery & Development

Price on request

Drug Discovery & Development Services

Drug Discovery & Development Services

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Cytotoxicity Assays

Price on request

Cytotoxicity Assays Services

Cytotoxicity Assays Services

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