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Cytomem Biosciences

San Mateo, California, US

Cytomem Biosciences is consulting and assay development company with a mission to create unique solutions for quantitative imaging and molecular characterization in life sciences. We provide services in advanced microscopy, surface bio-functionalization, and assay development aimed at characterizing membrane proteins.

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Ligand Binding Assays
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Binding kinetics of membrane bound receptor and its ligand

  • Detailed binding kinetics, including on rate, off rate, and equilibrium constant, between a membrane tethered protein and its ligand can be measured easily with techniques like FCCS and single molecule tracking. The experiments can be performed both in vitro and in live cells.

Binding kinetics of membrane bound receptor and its ligand

  • Detailed binding kinetics, including on rate, off rate, and equilibrium constant, between a membrane tethered protein and its ligand can be measured easily with techniques like FCCS and single molecule tracking. The experiments can be performed both in vitro and in live cells.
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In vivo Drug Efficacy Testing
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Live Cell-supported Membrane Hybrid Platform

Supported membranes are functionalized with ligands or antibodies whose surface density will be quantified. Cells expressing the appropriate receptor and/or drug of interest (small molecules or biologics) are then introduced at different concentrations and time points. Receptor... Show more »

Live Cell-supported Membrane Hybrid Platform

Supported membranes are functionalized with ligands or antibodies whose surface density will be quantified. Cells expressing the appropriate receptor and/or drug of interest (small molecules or biologics) are then introduced at different concentrations and time points. Receptor engagement and activity of drug can be quantified through live cell imaging. Besides drug efficacy, this method also provide information about binding parameters between the drug-target pair.

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Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy
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Newer analysis methods have been developed that allows us to measure a several molecular characteristics of an analyte including translational diffusion rates, specific brightness, fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetime, spectral characteristics, and photochemical properties. All of this translates into a powerful set of... Show more »

Newer analysis methods have been developed that allows us to measure a several molecular characteristics of an analyte including translational diffusion rates, specific brightness, fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetime, spectral characteristics, and photochemical properties. All of this translates into a powerful set of applications for monitoring an enormous variety of molecular processes. The advantages of FFS techniques are:

  • Small sample volumes (< 10 uL) and concentrations (picomolar)
  • Single molecule sensitivity
  • Measure interactions at equilibrium conditions (no washing required)
  • Direct measurement (no amplification required) with stoichiometry information
  • Few false negatives
  • Compatible with both in vitro and live cell imaging

Experts at Cytomem have many years of experience developing advanced FFS methods using time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup in quantifying molecular interactions.

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Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy
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Imaging mode

  • AFM is a type of scanning probe microscopy with resolution on the order of fractions of nanometer, which is more than 1000 times higher resolution than that is allowed by the optical diffraction limit. It works by scanning a sharp mechanical probe to "feel" the surface and can gather information like... Show more »

Imaging mode

  • AFM is a type of scanning probe microscopy with resolution on the order of fractions of nanometer, which is more than 1000 times higher resolution than that is allowed by the optical diffraction limit. It works by scanning a sharp mechanical probe to "feel" the surface and can gather information like surface profile, stiffness, and possible electrical potential. There are different imaging modes for AFM (contact, tapping, and non-contact) and all of them can be used in an aqueous environment. In general, tapping mode is widely used for soft materials.

Force spectroscopy

  • another powerful application of AFM is the measurement of interaction forces between two molecules. This is achieved by attaching one molecule on the AFM tip and bring it to interact with the other. The interaction forces is monitored during the approaching and detaching of the AFM tip.
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Fluorescence-Based Microscopy
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Epi-fluorescence

  • most basic illumination method.

Reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM)

  • has the ability to measure interface distances with nanometer resolution. This technique is ideal for studying dynamic adhesion of soft materials, including biological samples.

Total internal... Show more »

Epi-fluorescence

  • most basic illumination method.

Reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM)

  • has the ability to measure interface distances with nanometer resolution. This technique is ideal for studying dynamic adhesion of soft materials, including biological samples.

Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF)

  • an evanescent wave to selectively illuminate and excite fluorophores in a thin region adjacent to the glass-water interface. This illumination method reduces background fluorescence signal and is suited to study events happening close to a surface, such as the cell membrane. It is also commonly used in single molecule tracking experiments.

Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching

  • by observing the rate and pattern of fluorescence recovery in a defined photobleached area, this technique is capable of measuring the diffusion and movement of biological macromolecules.

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)

  • signals generated by energy transfer between two fluorophores. Because the transfer is limited to distances of less than 10 nanometers, the detection of FRET signals provides information about spatial relationships of the two fluorophores with sub-nanometer resolution. It has been used widely in studying protein conformation and protein-protein interactions, and can be used both in vitro and in live cells.

Photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM)

  • a single molecule detection method that generates images with resolution beyond the diffraction limit. It is ideal for imaging fixed samples and detecting relatively slow processes.

Confocal microscopy

  • By using a spatial filter to eliminate out-of-focus signal, confocal microscopy allows control of depth of field and enables ability of optical sectioning from thick specimens. The methods is particularly good at 3D imaging and surface profiling of samples.
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Transmitted Light Microscopy
Price on request

Bright field

  • simplest form of light microscopy.

Dark field

  • image contrast comes from light scattered by the sample. Good for live and unstained samples

Phase contrast

  • image contrast is enhanced by taking advantage of phase shift due to optical path difference through the sample. Live cells can be... Show more »

Bright field

  • simplest form of light microscopy.

Dark field

  • image contrast comes from light scattered by the sample. Good for live and unstained samples

Phase contrast

  • image contrast is enhanced by taking advantage of phase shift due to optical path difference through the sample. Live cells can be imaged in high contrast with sharp clarity in their natural state without being stained.

Polarized light

  • observing the rotation of polarized light through the sample

Differential interference contrast (DIC)

  • based on the principle of interferometry to gain information about difference in optical path length of the sample. DIC microscopy emphazises line and edges and works great for live and unstained thin biological samples. However, it is unsuitable for thick samples, such as tissue slices.
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Biology
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Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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Biomolecular Interaction Analysis
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Imaging & Spectroscopy
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Spectroscopy
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Fluorescence Spectroscopy
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Microscopy
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Scanning Probe Microscopy
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Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Services
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Optical Microscopy
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Pharmacology & Toxicology
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