The ANFF ACT is located at the Australian National University. Their facilities are based on photonic/electronic materials growth, processing and fabrication of devices including micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). These facilities provide a range of capabilities and services for the micro/nanofabrication of photonic and related devices as well as the fabrication of waveguides and photonic crystals.
Opto-electronic devices such as semiconductor lasers, photo-detectors and modulators are widely used for communications, data storage and medical applications. Further, photonic crystals, with their ability to confine light and guide and control its propagation, promise an entire suite of ultra-compact optical devices analogous to those of semiconductor electronics. Hence the node is internationally recognised for supporting both state-of-the-art research and proof-of-concept development for industry.
ANFF-ACT also enjoys access to two well known ANU research groups at the Laser Physics Centre and the Department of Electronic Materials Engineering. These groups bring expertise in the capabilities of high energy ion implantation, Si-etching, optical characterisation and two metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) reactors for the growth of III-V compound semiconductor multi- layers based on: GaAs, AIGaAs, InGaAs, InP, InGaAsP, InAlGaAs, GaSb, InSb, InGaAsN. These reactors enable the fabrication of nano-wires, quantum dots, quantum wells, strained layers and devices.
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin film deposition technique based on sequential surface chemistry to deposit conformal thin-films of materials onto substrates of varying compositions.
The system can deposit: Al2O3, HfO2, SiO2, TiO2, ZnO can be deposited at temperatures up to 400°C.
ANFF can provide consulting services to perform contract research or process engineering in the area of micro, nano and advanced materials fabrication to deliver prototypes or documented processes. Projects can be managed across each of the eight nodes of ANFF drawing on the resources of over 90 technical staff, 500 facilities and a network of academics.
E-beam & thermal evaporator Temescal BJD-2000
The system features a six pocket E-gun and one-position thermal evaporation. The system also has an extended chamber for a larger distance between source and sample to avoid excessive heating during thick metallisation for lift-off processes. The system is dedicated for Ohmic and Schottky contacts in III-V compound semiconductors.
The system can deposit the following metals onto 6 inch wafers: Al, Au, Cr, Ge, Ni, Pt, Ti
Flip Chip bonding is a technology that allows bonding various type of devices/chips onto a different substrate like bonding a laser/LED onto a Si-chip to add optoelectronic function to the well-established microelectronic and Si-based photonic circuitry that lack active devices (lasers and detectors) operating at the telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 μm.
Solder attachment of components remains the most used assembly method, with solder-bumped flip chip in high density assemblies like AuSn solder that has become the material of choice for flip chip mounting of precision optical dies.
The ANFF ACT Node Fineplacer Lambda tool allows an alignment accuracy of 0.5 μm.
FEI Helios 600 NanoLab Focussed ion and electron beam system
The 30kV e-beam allows very high resolution SEM imaging (0.9nm) alongside other ion-beam features like simple milling, 3D image reconstruction (slicing + SEM), TEM lamellae preparation (also available in automatic mode), and deposition.
Also available for ion beam deposition of platinum, gold, SiO2 as well reactive ion beam etching with the addition of XeF2 (SiO2) or I2 (III-V).
EVG 520HE: this hot embossing tool allows sub-µm patterning using 3D non-transparent mold. It also allows adhesive wafer bonding.
EVG 620 for fabrication of creating sub-µm patterns in nano-imprint mode (UV-curing mode) through a transparent 3D mold.
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of dielectrics and III-V semiconductors. Etching with the following gasses is possible:
Cl2/ BCl3/ CH4/ H2/ Ar/He/ N2/O2/ CHF3/ SF6/
ANFF - ACT has a high and low energy ion implantation system.
The high energy system:
A 1.7MV tandem accelerator incorporating a 100 kV injector with a SNICS II negative ion sputter source. Used for implanting ions in the energy range 15-100 keV (using the injector only) and 200keV to several MeV (depending on selected ion charge state). Most ions are available but implant fluences may be limited in some cases. Typical samples sizes are a few cm square but wafers up to 100mm diameter can be accommodated. (150mm wafer chamber currently under construction).
The low energy system:
Can implant with energies up to 175keV on wafers up to 4 inch in diameter.
EVG 620 and 520HE mask aligner
EVG 620 mask aligner operating in the i-line range suitable for optical lithography down to 1µm. It is suitable for 2, 4 and 6“ wafer size.
Metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), also known as metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), is an epitaxial growth technique of materials, especially compound semiconductors, from the surface reaction of organic compounds or metalorganics and metal hydrides containing the required chemical elements.
The system can deposit III-V semiconductors (As-, P- and Sb-based materials) as thin films, quantum wells, quantum dots, nanowires and device structures.
Plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is a process used to deposit thin films from a gas state (vapour) to a solid state on a substrate. During deposition, a plasma of the reaction gases is generated by RF (AC) frequency or DC discharge between two electrodes and the chemical reactions among reacting gases lead to the thin film deposition.
The system can deposit SiOx, SiNx, a-Si and Poly-Si on up to 8 inch wafers.
Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a thin film deposition technique where a high power pulsed laser beam is focused inside a vacuum chamber to strike a target of the material that is to be deposited. This material is vapourized from the target and deposited as a thin film on a substrate.
Capable of depositing ZnO, MgO and CdO
on wafers up to 1 inch in diameter.
Specs: 800°C stage, 248 nm excimer laser (700mJ/pulse), 6-target chamber
Thermal annealing processes are commonly used to remove implantation damage, activate species and alloy materials (ohmic contacts of metal on semiconductors). Thanks to the use of halogen lamps it features a very fast heating cycle (typically a few hundreds °C in a few seconds).
Specs: Heating up to 1400C for < 10 minutes of wafers < 3 inch in diameter
Reactive ion etching (RIE) is an etching technology which uses chemically reactive plasma to remove materials. The plasma is generated under low pressure by an electromagnetic field which is typically set to a frequency of 13.56 MHz at a few hundred Watts.
In addition to a chemical process, the physical bombardment by high-energy ions from the plasma also plays important role during the etching process.
Etching gasses available include:
H2, CH4, CHF3, Ar, O2
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